MI RefiningDivision - Detroit Refinery - Executive Summary

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                       DETROIT REFINERY 
                 Risk Management Program Plan 
1.   Executive Summary 
    The Marathon Ashland Petroleum LLC, Michigan Refining Division (MRD) is committed 
    to operating in a manner that is safe for employees, contractors, the public and the 
    environment.  It is MRD's policy to conduct its operations in accordance with the highest 
    standards of environmental stewardship, employee and contractor safety and community 
    responsibility.   As part of this policy, MRD has established systems to help ensure safe 
    operation of the processes at this facility.  One part of these systems is a risk management 
    program (RMP) that helps manage the risks at MRD and that complies with the requirements 
    of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) rule 40 CFR part 68, Accidental Release 
Requirements:  Risk Management Programs (the RMP rule).  One of the 
    requirements of the RMP rule is to submit a risk management plan (RMPlan) describing the 
    risk management program at MRD.  This document is intended to satisfy the RMP Plan 
    executive summary requirement of the RMP rule and to provide the public with a description 
    of the risk management program at MRD. 
    1.1  Accidental Release Prevention and Emergency Response Policies 
         MRD has a long-standing commitment to the safety of the public, its employees and 
         contractors and to the preservation of the environment.  One primary element  of this 
         commitment is the prevention of accidental releases of hazardous substances in and 
         around the refinery.  MRD utilizes engineering controls, inspection programs, and 
         detailed procedures to reduce the probability of an accidental release.   
         In the event of a release, the MRD has a well trained emergency resp 
onse team to 
         contain, mitigate, monitor, and stop the release.  The emergency response team is 
         fully trained for fire fighting, medical emergencies, hazardous material releases and 
         spills and for ambient air monitoring.  MRD evaluates each situation, responds based 
         on our capabilities and training, and if necessary, requests assistance from outside 
         emergency responders including local fire departments to help control and contain 
         the release and to prevent and/or reduce the consequences of a release.  In 
         conjunction with the Wayne County and Detroit local emergency planning 
         committees (LEPCs), the refinery has the ability to notify the local community 
         through media broadcasting systems. 
         The Michigan Refining Division Manager has overall responsibility for the 
         development and implementation of the risk management program for EPA-regulated 
         processes at MRD.  However, th 
e specific responsibilities for certain aspects of that 
         program have been delegated to other personnel who report either directly, or through 
         other management personnel, to the Division Manager.  Those relationships are 
         depicted on the division organization chart.  Specific responsibility for the 
         implementation of the division process safety management (PSM) and accident 
         prevention program has been delegated to the Division's Environmental and Safety 
         Manager.  Similarly, responsibility for the RMP hazard assessment and risk 
         management plan has been delegated to the Division's PSM Coordinator.  The 
         division's emergency response program, including compliance with the RMP aspects 
         of that effort, is the responsibility of the Division Environmental and Safety 
         Manager.  In keeping with our policy that safe operation is part of everyone's job, 
         many other division personnel are also in 
volved in RMP activities on an ongoing 
    1.2  MAP Regulated Substances 
         MRD is a petroleum refinery and petroleum products facility located principally in 
         Detroit, Michigan with a tank farm in Melvindale, Michigan and a marine terminal 
         in Dearborn, Michigan.  MRD uses crude petroleum as its primary  feed material and 
         makes a variety of petroleum-based products, including gasoline, diesel fuel, and 
         liquefied petroleum gases such as propane and butane. Many of these products are 
         flammable substances that EPA has specifically listed in the RMP rule and are 
         present in the refinery process units above the EPA threshold quantity of 10,000 
         pounds.  In total, MRD has 14 process units that are covered by the RMP rule 
         because of their flammable process materials.  These units are listed in the RMP data 
         included with this summary (Section 1.17 of the RMP Data Elements). 
   MRD has no toxic substance regulated by the RMP rule in  sufficient quantity to be 
         covered by the RMP rule. 
    1.3  Offsite Consequence Analysis 
         MRD performed an offsite consequence analysis to estimate the potential for an 
         accidental release of a regulated substance that could affect the public or the 
         environment.  The offsite consequence analysis consisted of evaluating both worst-case scenarios and alternative release scenarios.  MRD does not expect a worst-case 
         release scenario to ever occur.  An alternative release scenario represents a release 
         that might occur during the lifetime of a facility like the refinery. Alternative release 
         scenarios can be used to help the LEPC improve the community emergency response 
         plan.  We have submitted release scenario analyses to EPA and have shared that 
         information with the LEPC and other organizations involved in emergency response 
   activities.  It is also available to local residents and businesses. If you are interested 
         in this information, please contact the Detroit Refinery receptionist at (313) 843-9100 
         and request to speak with the Environmental and Safety Manager. 
         The paragraphs below briefly describe the worst case and alternate release scenarios 
         included in our risk management plan.  Please recognize that none of these events 
         have occurred at our facility.  Also, for some of these events, MRD has emergency 
         mitigation systems to help reduce the consequences of the event if it occurred.  In all 
         cases, if such events occurred, MRD would actuate its emergency response plan to 
         respond to the event, notify local authorities and take appropriate actions to protect 
         both our employees and people in the community. 
         Worst-case Release Scenarios 
         Because MRD has no toxic substance regulated by the RMP ru 
le in  sufficient 
         quantity to be covered by the RMP rule, the risk management plan does not include 
         a worst-case scenario associated with toxic substances.  
         The worst-case scenario associated with a release of flammable substances in RMP-covered processes at the refinery is a vapor cloud explosion, involving the full 
         inventory of the largest vessel containing butane. The analysis assumes that the 
         maximum possible inventory of 3,100,000 pounds is released, completely vaporizes, 
         and ignites, resulting in a vapor cloud explosion. Because there are some public 
         receptor locations just outside the refinery property, this event could affect members 
         of the public at those closest locations.  
         There are no Program 1 processes at the refinery.  Therefore, no additional worst-case analyses are reported for such processes.  Also, the refinery did not identify any 
         worst-case scenarios that would 
affect public receptors other than the receptors 
         affected by the scenarios reported above. 
         Alternative Release Scenarios 
         Because MRD has no toxic substance regulated by the RMP rule in  sufficient 
         quantity to be covered by the RMP rule, the risk management plan does not include 
         an alternate release scenario associated with toxic substances.   
         The alternative release scenario in our risk management plan for flammable 
         substances at the refinery is from a failure of the largest vessel containing butane The 
         failure would release 840,000 pounds of flammable material.  The analysis assumed 
         that all of this material would be involved in a boiling liquid expanding vapor 
         Explosion (BLEVE) and showed that the fire hazard resulting from the explosion 
         would affect public receptor locations outside the refinery. 
         As stated previously, details regarding these scenarios have bee 
n included in the 
         additional information submitted to EPA with this executive summary, and the 
         information has been shared with the LEPCs, other organizations involved in 
         emergency planning, and members of the local community. If you are interested in 
         this information, please contact the MRD receptionist at (313) 843-9100 and ask for 
         the Environmental and Safety Manager.  
    1.4  Accidental Release Prevention Program 
         The following is a summary of the general accident prevention program in place at 
         MRD. Because processes at the refinery that are regulated by the EPA RMP 
         regulation are also subject to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration 
         (OSHA) process safety management (PSM) standard, and because the OSHA PSM 
         requirements are very similar to the EPA RMP requirements for refineries, this 
         summary addresses each of the OSHA PSM elements.  The PSM program at this 
         facility has been extended by the refinery, where necessary, to satisfy EPA's Program 
         Level 3 accident prevention program requirements. 
         Employee Participation 
         MRD encourages employees to participate in all facets of process safety management 
         and accident prevention.  Examples of employee participation range from updating 
         and compiling technical documents and chemical information to participating as a 
         member of a process hazard analysis (PHA) team, incident investigation, and 
         compliance audit teams.  Employees have access to all information created as part 
         of the refinery's accident prevention program. Specific ways that employees can be 
         involved in the accident prevention program are documented in an employee 
         participation plan that is maintained at the refinery.  
         Process Safety Information 
         The refinery keeps a variety of technical d 
ocuments that are used to help maintain 
         safe operation of the processes.  These documents address chemical properties and 
         associated hazards, limits for key process parameters and specific chemical 
         inventories, and equipment design basis/configuration information.  Specific 
         departments within the refinery are assigned responsibility for maintaining up-to-date 
         process safety information.  
         Chemical-specific information, including exposure hazards and emergency 
         response/exposure treatment considerations, is provided in material safety data sheets 
         (MSDSs).  This information is supplemented by documents that specifically address 
         known corrosion concerns and any known hazards associated with the inadvertent 
         mixing of chemicals.  For specific process areas, the refinery has documented safety-related limits for specific process parameters (e.g., temperature, level, composition) 
         in the 
operation manuals for each process unit. The refinery ensures that the process 
         is maintained within these limits by using process controls and monitoring 
         instruments, operating procedures, highly trained personnel, and protective 
         instrument systems (e.g., automated shutdown systems). 
         MRD also maintains numerous technical documents that provide information about 
         the design and construction of process equipment.  This information includes 
         materials of construction, design pressure and temperature ratings, electrical rating 
         of equipment, etc.  This information, in combination with written procedures and 
         trained personnel, provides a basis for establishing inspection and maintenance 
         activities, as well as for evaluating proposed process and facility changes to ensure 
         that safety features in the process are not compromised. 
         Process Hazard Analysis 
         MRD has a comprehensi 
ve Process Hazard Analysis (PHA) program to help ensure 
         that hazards associated with the various processes are identified and controlled.  
         Within this program, each existing covered process and future processes are 
         systematically examined to identify hazards and ensure that adequate controls are in 
         place to manage those hazards. 
         The refinery primarily uses the hazard and operability (HAZOP) analysis technique 
         to perform these evaluations.  HAZOP analysis is recognized as one of the most 
         systematic and thorough hazard evaluation techniques available.  The analyses are 
         conducted using a team of people who have operating experience as well as 
         engineering expertise.  This team identifies and evaluates hazards of the process as 
         well as recommends accident prevention and/or mitigation measures when the team 
         believes such measures are necessary. 
         The PHA team recommendation 
s are forwarded to local management for resolution.  
         All approved safety improvements being implemented in response to PHA team 
         recommendations are tracked until they are complete. The final resolution of each 
         recommendation is documented and retained by the Environmental and Safety 
         To help ensure that the process controls and/or process hazards do not eventually 
         deviate significantly from the original design safety features, the refinery periodically 
         updates and revalidates its process hazard analyses of affected units. These periodic 
         reviews are conducted at least every five years and will be conducted at this 
         frequency until the process is no longer operating.  The PHA Team has considered 
         offsite effects of potential releases as part of all PHA updates completed after 
         August, 1996.  The results and recommendations from these updates are documented 
retained.  Once again, the team findings are forwarded to management for 
         consideration, and the final resolution of the recommendations is documented and 
         Operating Procedures 
         MRD maintains written procedures that address various modes of process operations, 
         such as (1) unit startup, (2) normal operations, (3) temporary operations, (4) 
         emergency shutdown, (5) normal shutdown, and (6) initial startup of a new process.  
         These procedures can be used as a reference by experienced operators and provide 
         a basis for consistent training of new operators.  Procedures are periodically reviewed 
         and annually certified as current and accurate. Procedures are maintained current by 
         revising them as necessary to reflect changes made to the process.  In addition, the 
         refinery operating procedures provide guidance on how to respond to events that 
         result in exceeding safe ope 
rating limits for specific process or equipment 
         parameters. The written operating procedures are readily available to operators in the 
         process units and for other personnel to use as necessary to safely perform their job 
         To complement the written procedures for process operations, MRD has a training 
         program for all employees involved in operating a process. New employees receive 
         basic training in refinery operations and specific training on the process they will 
         operate.  After a new operator demonstrates through tests and skills demonstration 
         adequate knowledge to perform the duties and tasks in a safe manner on their own, 
         they can work independently.  In addition, all operators periodically receive refresher 
         training on the operating procedures to ensure that their skills and knowledge are 
         maintained at an acceptable level. This refresher training  
is conducted at least every 
         3 years.  Operators are given the opportunity to take part in more frequent refresher 
         training if desired.  All of this training is documented for each operator, including the 
         means used to verify that the operator understood the training. 
         MRD uses contractors to supplement its work force during periods of increased 
         maintenance or construction activities.  Because some contractors work on or near 
         process equipment, the refinery has procedures in place to ensure that contractors (1) 
         perform their work in a safe manner, (2) have the appropriate knowledge and skills, 
         (3) are aware of the hazards in their workplace, (4) understand what they should do 
         in the event of an emergency, (5) understand and follow site safety rules, and (6) 
         inform MAP personnel of any hazards that they find during their work. This is 
         accomplished by provid 
ing contractors with (1) a process overview, (2) information 
         about safety and health hazards, (3) emergency response plan requirements, (4) safe 
         work practices, and (5) a work permit process (i.e., for hot work, confined space, etc.) 
         prior to their beginning work. In addition, the refinery evaluates contractor safety 
         programs and performance during the selection of a contractor.  Refinery personnel 
         periodically monitor contractor performance to insure that contractors are fulfilling 
         their safety obligations. 
         Pre-startup Safety Reviews 
         MRD conducts a pre-startup safety review for any new facility or facility 
         modification that requires a change in the process safety information (not required 
         for replacement in kind).  The purpose of the review is to ensure that safety features, 
         procedures, personnel, and the equipment are appropriately prepared for startup prior 
         to pl 
acing the equipment into service.  This review provides one additional check to 
         make sure construction is in accordance with the design specifications and that all 
         supporting systems are operationally ready.  The review uses checklists to verify all 
         aspects of readiness.  A review involves field verification of the construction and 
         serves a quality assurance function. 
         Mechanical Integrity 
         MRD has well-established practices, programs and procedures to maintain pressure 
         vessels, piping systems, relief and vent systems, controls, pumps and compressors, 
         and emergency shutdown systems in a safe operating condition.  The basic aspects 
         of this program include:  (1) conducting training, (2) developing written procedures, 
         (3) performing inspections and tests, (4) correcting identified deficiencies, and (5) 
         applying quality assurance measures. In combination, these activities form a sy 
         that maintains the mechanical integrity of the process equipment. 
         Maintenance personnel receive training on (1) an overview of the process, (2) safety 
         and health hazards, (3) applicable maintenance procedures, (4) emergency response 
         plans, and (5) applicable safe work practices to help ensure that they can perform 
         their job in a safe manner. Written procedures help ensure that work is performed in 
         a consistent manner and provide a basis for training. Inspections and tests are 
         performed to help ensure that equipment functions as intended, and to verify that 
         equipment is within acceptable limits (e.g., adequate wall thickness for pressure 
         vessels).  If a deficiency is identified, employees will correct the deficiency before 
         placing the equipment back into service (if possible), or a management of change 
         team will review the use of the equipment and determine what actions ar 
e necessary 
         to ensure the safe operation of the equipment. 
         Another integral part of the mechanical integrity program is quality assurance. MAP 
         incorporates quality assurance measures into equipment purchases and repairs.  This 
         helps ensure that new equipment is suitable for its intended use and that proper 
                   materials and spare parts are used when repairs are made.          Safe Work Practices 
         MRD has long-standing safe work practices in place to help ensure worker and 
         process safety. Examples of these include (1) control of the entry/presence/exit of 
         support personnel, (2) a lockout/tagout procedure to ensure isolation of energy 
         sources for equipment undergoing maintenance, (3) a procedure for safe removal of 
         hazardous materials before process piping or equipment is opened, (4) a permit and 
         procedure to control welding and other spark-producing activities, and (5) a 
         and procedure to ensure that adequate precautions are in place before entry into a 
         confined space.  These procedures (and others), along with training of affected 
         personnel, form a system to help ensure that operations and maintenance activities 
         are performed safely. 
         Management of Change 
         MRD has a comprehensive system to manage changes to processes.  This system 
         requires that changes to items such as process equipment, chemicals, technology 
         (including process operating conditions), procedures, and other facility changes be 
         properly reviewed and authorized before being implemented.  Changes are reviewed 
         to (1) ensure that adequate controls are in place to manage any new hazards and (2) 
         verify that existing controls have not been compromised by the change.  Affected 
         chemical hazard information, process technology information, and equipment 
n, as well as procedures are updated to incorporate these changes.  In 
         addition, operating and maintenance personnel are provided with any necessary 
         training on the change. 
         Incident Investigation 
         MRD promptly investigates all incidents that resulted in, or reasonably could have 
         resulted in, a fire/explosion, toxic gas release, major property damage, environmental 
         loss, or personal injury.  The goal of each investigation is to determine the facts and 
         develop corrective actions to prevent a recurrence of the incident or a similar 
         incident.  The investigation team, which may include contractors, documents its 
         findings, develops recommendations to prevent a recurrence, and forwards these 
         results to refinery management for resolution. Corrective actions taken in response 
         to the investigation team's findings and recommendations are tracked until they are 
         complete.  The fi 
nal resolution of each finding or recommendation is documented, 
         and the investigation results are reviewed with all employees (including contractors) 
         who could be affected by the findings.  Incident investigation reports are retained for 
         at least 5 years so that the reports can be reviewed during future PHAs and PHA 
         Compliance Audits 
         To help ensure that the accident prevention program is functioning properly, the 
         refinery periodically conducts audits to confirm the procedures and practices required 
         by the accident prevention program are being implemented. Compliance audits are 
         conducted at least every 3 years.  These audits may be led by a third party contractor 
         with assistance by refinery employees as required.  The findings are forwarded to 
         refinery management for resolution.  Corrective actions taken in response to the audit 
         team's findings are tra 
cked until they are complete.  The final resolution of each 
         finding is documented, and the two most recent audit reports are retained. 
    1.5  Chemical-specific Prevention Steps 
         The processes at the refinery have hazards that must be managed to ensure continued 
         safe operation. The accident prevention program summarized previously is applied 
         to all EPA RMP-covered processes at the refinery.  Collectively, these prevention 
         program activities help prevent potential accident scenarios of flammable substances 
         caused by equipment failures or human errors. 
         In addition to the accident prevention program activities, the refinery has safety 
         features on many units to help (1) contain/control a release, (2) quickly detect a 
         release, and (3) reduce the consequences of a release.  The following types of safety 
         features are used in various processes: 
              Release Detection 
  Hydrocarbon detectors with alarms in the pressurized LPG storage and rail 
              car loading area  
              Hydrogen sulfide detectors are worn by all employees in all areas where 
              hydrogen sulfide is present 
              Release Containment/Control 
              Process relief valves that discharge to a flare to capture and incinerate process 
              materials to prevent over pressure damage to equipment; 
              Manual and automatic valves to permit isolation of the process; 
              Automated shutdown systems for specific process parameters (e.g., high 
              level, high temperature); 
              Curbing or diking to contain liquid releases; 
              Redundant equipment and instrumentation where needed (e.g., 
              uninterruptible power supply for some critical process control system, 
              redundant firewater pumps); 
              Release mitigation systems (water spray systems); 
          Deluge system for LPG storage vessels; 
              Trained emergency response personnel; 
              Personal protective equipment (e.g., protective clothing, self-contained 
              breathing apparatus); and 
              Blast-resistant central control building to help protect control systems and 
    1.6  Five-year Accident History 
         No releases of RMP regulated substances have occurred from MRD in the last 5 
         years that have resulted in deaths, injuries, or significant property damage on site, or 
         known deaths, injuries, evacuations, sheltering-in-place, property damage, or 
         environmental damage off site. 
    1.7  Emergency Response Program Information 
         MRD maintains a written Emergency Response Plan (ERP), which aims to protect 
         employees, public health, and the environment.  The purpose of the ERP is to protect 
         personnel and to minimize the impact on the refine 
ry and surrounding areas in the 
         event of an emergency situation.  The plan consists of procedures for responding to 
         such emergencies as fires, explosions, hazardous gas or liquid releases, natural 
         disasters, medical incidents and bomb threats.  The plan addresses all aspects of 
         emergency response including responsibilities of the Emergency Response Team, 
         coordination of clean-up activities, timely notification of authorities, maintenance of 
         proper documentation, and guidelines for compliance with applicable government 
         regulations.  Furthermore, the refinery has procedures that address proper use, 
         maintenance, inspection, and testing of emergency response equipment.  All 
         employees receive annual safety training to instruct them in proper emergency 
         response procedures.  The Emergency Response Team participates in additional 
         training sessions so that they can safely handle potenti 
al emergency situations. 
         The overall ERP for the refinery is coordinated with the Wayne County LEPC, 
         Detroit LEPC, and local community fire and police departments.  These 
         organizations form part of MRD's Incident Command System (ICS), which permits 
         all involved parties to work together safely and effectively in order to bring a 
         favorable outcome to an emergency situation.  
         In order to keep the plan up to date, the emergency response procedures are reviewed 
         at least every three years by the emergency preparedness subcommittee which 
         includes both salaried and hourly personnel.   Any changes implemented are updated 
         in the ERP.  Affected personnel are trained in regards to the changes in the ERP. 
    1.8  Planned Changes to Improve Safety 
         The refinery constantly strives to improve the safety of its operations through 
         periodic safety reviews, the incident investigati 
on program, and a program soliciting 
         safety suggestions from the workers.  The refinery resolves all findings from PHAs, 
         some of which result in modifications to the process.  The following types of changes 
         are planned during the next 5 years: 
         Establishment of a perimeter monitoring team; 
         Activation of an additional emergency alarm to provide improved geographical 
         Continuous improvements of personnel training programs; and  
         Establishing a behavior based safety program
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