AES Hawaii Inc. - Executive Summary

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                          SECTION 1 
                      EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 
EPA's  Accidental Release Prevention Rule, which is authorized 
under  112(R)  of  the  Clean Air  Act  (CAA),  requires  that 
facilities   that  have  covered  processes   establish   Risk 
Management Programs to reduce the risks of accidental  release 
of  toxic  or  flammable  materials  and  establish  emergency 
response  procedures  in the event of an accident.  This  Risk 
Management  Plan summarizes the efforts that this company  has 
undertaken to establish a Risk Management Program. 
Anhydrous ammonia is the only chemical used at the AES  Hawaii 
facility  that is above the RMP threshold amount.  The  onsite 
maximum storage quantity of the liquid anhydrous ammonia  tank 
at  the AES Hawaii plant is 109,000 pounds, which is above the 
10,000 pound RMP applicability threshold. The AES Hawaii plant 
does  not  use   
any other chemicals or flammable materials  in 
excess of threshold quantities covered by RMP requirements. 
A  management  system  will be in place  at  the  facility  to 
oversee  implementation  of  the  facility's  Risk  Management 
Program. This management system is considered one of the  most 
important elements of this facility's Risk Management Program, 
as  its  goal  is  to  ensure  that  lines  of  authority  and 
responsibility are clearly defined, helping to ensure that all 
elements  of  the Risk Management Program are implemented.  At 
the  AES  Hawaii  Facility, the person  who  has  the  overall 
responsibility  for  the  Risk  Management  Program   is   the 
environmental coordinator. 
The   facility   also   participates  in  emergency   response 
activities  with the Campbell Local Emergency  Action  Network 
(CLEAN). CLEAN has developed an Emergency Management Plan that 
provides  supplemental guidance and information  to  emergency 
response personnel, local residents, and busi 
ness based on the 
specific  operations  in and around Campbell  Industrial  Park 
(CIP).  The  plan addresses emergency planning, public  health 
and safety. 
The AES Hawaii facility generates steam and electricity at 91- 
086  Kaomi  Loop,  Hawaii 96707. The  Plant  is  located  near 
Barber's  Point, within the area known as Campbell  Industrial 
Park,  which is on the Island of Oahu about 30 miles  west  of 
Honolulu. Electricity generated by the facility is supplied to 
Hawaiian  Electric Company, and steam is sold  to  the  nearby 
Chevron USA oil refinery. The plant has two Circulating  Fluid 
Bed  (CFB) coal-fired boilers and one steam turbine.  The  CFB 
boilers  use a clean coal technology that minimizes  emissions 
of  sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides. The boilers use limestone 
that  reacts  with  the sulfur in the coal  to  reduce  sulfur 
dioxide  emissions. The nitrogen oxides emissions are  reduced 
by   two   factors:   the  relatively  low  boiler   operating 
temperatures  and  the a 
ddition of anhydrous  ammonia  to  the 
boiler  flue  gas  that  reacts with the  nitrogen  oxides  to 
produce harmless nitrogen gas and water vapor. 
Ammonia safety considerations have been incorporated into  the 
construction  of  the  ammonia system.  The  ammonia  tank  is 
secured  to the ground and has cathodic protection.  The  tank 
has   relief   valves   at  the  top  of   the   tank.   Thus, 
overpressurization  of  the tank would primarily  involve  the 
venting of gas in the upper part of the tank. The vapor  lines 
from  the  tank  to  the  boiler area  are  buried  to  reduce 
potential  releases  from this piping. Loading  and  unloading 
valves,  the tank and tanker truck are equipped with automatic 
shut-off  valves  in  the event that flow through  the  valves 
exceeds  design criteria. Therefore, in the event of a loading 
hose  failure,  the  flow  of ammonia would  be  automatically 
terminated.  The facility also has a monitor  located  in  the 
ammonia system process area tha 
t detects leaks and triggers an 
This  facility maintains a Prevention Program at the  facility 
that  minimizes the possibility of any accidental release from 
the  ammonia  system.  The prevention program  incorporates  a 
mechanical integrity program, regularly scheduled maintenance, 
daily  visual  operational checks of equipment,  and  employee 
training   in   proper  operating  procedures  and   emergency 
AES  Hawaii  has designed a Mechanical Integrity  Program  for 
ammonia in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.119(j). The purpose  is 
to   verify  that  critical  process  equipment  is  designed, 
installed,  maintained  properly, and operates  correctly.  In 
accordance  with  this  program,  the  ammonia  processes  and 
equipment  must be constructed, installed, and  maintained  in 
order to minimize the risk of releases of the highly hazardous 
chemicals.  The  mechanical integrity program  at  AES  Hawaii 
includes  identifying  and categorizing equipment.  Inspecting 
testing  of  instrumentation and documenting  maintenance 
procedures;  training  of maintenance personnel;  establishing 
criteria  for  acceptable test results; documenting  test  and 
inspection  results; and documenting manufacturer  information 
for equipment and instrumentation. 
The  facility  performs a system integrity  check  every  five 
years   for  the  ammonia  storage  tank  and  all  associated 
hoses/lines.   The  most  recent  integrity   evaluation   was 
performed  in  May  1998.  As part  of  this  evaluation,  all 
emergency  relief  valves and storage  tank  loading/unloading 
valves and hoses were replaced. The equipment is maintained in 
accordance  with manufacturer specifications,  and  applicable 
ANSI,   and  ASME  engineering  codes.  A  computer   database 
generates work orders to identify when such maintenance  needs 
to  be  implemented.  Once,  each  12-hour  period,  operators 
visually   observe  the  equipment  for  signs  of   potential 
malfunction.  Alarms an 
d interlocks are checked on  a  monthly 
All  new employees, regardless of position, are given a safety 
walk  of  all areas of AES Hawaii. This walk through  includes 
the  ammonia system. Special emphasis is placed on the  nature 
of  the anhydrous ammonia and actions of all personnel in case 
of  an ammonia problem (i.e. leak). All persons hired who  are 
responsible  for  operations of the ammonia system  are  given 
full  classroom training before they are allowed to  work  on, 
operate  or otherwise manipulate or affect the ammonia system. 
The  classroom  course includes detailed  instruction  on  the 
ammonia  system,  including the physical aspects  of  ammonia, 
operating  the  ammonia system, and casualties  involving  the 
ammonia  system.  They are trained regarding the  hazards  and 
safety  precautions to be observed for the ammonia system.  In 
addition, annual refresher training is required. 
The  plant  has a current "Disaster and Emergency  Plan".  All 
employees  have  bee 
n trained in the plan,  and  the  plan  is 
reviewed  frequently to verify that it is current  with  plant 
operating  practice.  The  plan  contains  emergency  response 
procedures  (ERP)  which include actions  for  evaluating  the 
severity  and  controlling  releases  of  hazardous  materials 
including  ammonia.  A  list  of the  agencies  that  must  be 
notified is included in the plan to assure that the public  is 
properly notified in the event of an emergency. 
AES  Hawaii  has  performed a Hazard and  Operability  (HAZOP) 
Analysis  that  evaluated  all  potential  hazards   for   the 
facility.  The  HAZOP  study was performed  according  to  the 
procedures  described  in "Guidelines  for  Hazard  Evaluation 
Procedures;  Center for Chemical Process Safety" published  by 
the  American Institute of Chemical Engineers, New  York.  The 
HAZOP  was  performed by a team of technical  experts  in  the 
system's process, engineering, design, operations maintenance, 
and  safety.  The ammonia  
system was divided into sections  or 
segments  and assigned a node number. Each node was  evaluated 
for  deviations  using guide words such as  "no  flow",  "high 
pressure",  etc.  The cause and consequence of  a  guide  word 
applied  to  a  node were evaluated to determine and  identify 
deviations and/or hazards that can result from application  of 
a  guide  word  to  the node. Each identified consequence  was 
assigned  a  relative risk rank based on the severity  of  the 
consequence and anticipated frequency. The team then discussed 
corrective actions which were recorded and implemented or  are 
in the process of being implemented. 
A  Hazard  Assessment is also included in this Risk Management 
Plan.  It  presents  the  potential offsite  impacts  for  the 
postulated  worst-case alternative release  scenario  for  the 
ammonia  system. The worst case scenario required by  the  EPA 
assumes that the entire content of the ammonia storage  vessel 
is  released over a 10-minute period. It is 
important to  note 
that  the  likelihood of the worst-case scenario is  extremely 
low.  Additionally, the meteorological parameters assumed  for 
the worst-case scenario are low wind speed and high stability, 
thus resulting in a very conservative analysis. 
The  alternative  case scenario is based on  a  transfer  hose 
failure  or  a  pipe leak through a 1-inch  hole.  The  entire 
content  of  the ammonia system is assumed to release  over  a 
60-minute  period.  The  zone  of  impact  in  this  case   is 
approximately  0.62 miles and would primarily affect  business 
in CIP. The alternative scenario also is conservative. 
AES  has  implemented  these  various  analyses  and  training 
programs  to prevent and prepare for an emergency release.  To 
date, this facility's Five Year History (and entire history of 
the  plant) does not include any accidental releases from  the 
ammonia   system  which  resulted  in  deaths,  injuries,   or 
significant  property damage onsite, or known offsite  d 
injuries,  evacuations, sheltering in-place, property  damage, 
or                    environmental                    damage.
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