Water Station # 25 - Executive Summary

| Accident History | Chemicals | Emergency Response | Registration | Source | Executive Summary |

The City of Kalamazoo Public Water Supply System is designed, operated, and maintained by the Kalamazoo Public Services Department, Water Division. (KPSWD). The mission and the purpose of the System is to provide a safe, sufficient, reliable water supply and related services to the public within the Kalamazoo metropolitan area. Ground water provides 100 percent of the water served. The average daily flow rate is about 23 MGD. 
Chlorine is used to disinfect the water prior to supply. It is a regulated chemical under OSHA's Process Safety Management rules and under USEPA's Chemical Accident Prevention rules. Chlorine is delivered and used in one ton containers. The containers are stored in storage room. 
The Water Supply System uses vacuum system that are inherently safe. These systems involve the use of water flowing through an eductor which creates vacuum. This vacuum allows for the feed of chlorine from the containers into the piping system. If a chlorine line downstream of the vacuum 
regulator is broken or develops a leak, the vacuum is interrupted and the vacuum regulator automatically closes, preventing discharge of chlorine. 
The KPSWD has developed a comprehensive, accidental release prevention program as part of the OSHA PSM program. The elements of this program include: 
- Process Safety Information 
- Process Hazard Analysis 
- Operating Procedures 
- Training 
- Management of Change 
- Pre-Startup Safety Review 
- Compliance Audits 
- Incident Investigation 
- Contractor Management 
- Hot Work Permits 
The emergency response activities have been coordinated with the Kalamazoo Department of Public Safety. 
The worst-case release scenario has been defined by the USEPA in a guidance document. It involves the rupture and complete loss of chlorine from a full one ton container outside the chlorine room at the Station. The distance to the specified endpoint is estimated to be 1.3 miles. This distance was estimated using USEPA's RMP*Comp V1.06.  
An alternative-case relea 
se scenario was also performed based on the experience of plant operators. The alternative scenario considers a leaking gasket at the connection between the chlorine container and the valve/piping system while the system is operating. It is assumed that the windows and doors of the chlorine building are closed. It is also assumed that the chlorine leak detectors sense the chlorine gas, the alarm goes off in the Operations Control room and a remedial action is taken within sixty minutes. The distance to the specified endpoint is estimated to be 0.1 miles. The distance was estimated using USEPA's RMP*Comp V1.06. 
In the past five years, there have been no accidental releases of chlorine at the Station, that have resulted in deaths, injuries, or significant damage on site, or known offsite deaths, injuries, evacuations, sheltering in place, property damage, or environmental damage. 
An Emergency Response Plan has been developed for the site. This plan, which has been submitted to the Loca 
l Emergency Planning Committee, contains measures that Water Supply staff can take to alert employees to a release, personal protective equipment, how to distinguish between an incidental release and a significant release, and many other elements. The staff receive training to allow for offensive remedial action in response to an on-site release and for incident command practices.
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