Algiers Water Purification Plant - Executive Summary
Executive Summary |
This document was developed to comply with the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's)
Risk Management Program II, under Section 112 (r) of the Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments of
1990, 40 CFR Part 68. An outline of the Risk Management Program is provided in Figure ES-1.
The disinfection process (i.e., chlorine system) is covered under this regulation at the Sewerage
and Water Board of New Orleans (S&WB) Algiers Water Purification Plant (WPP).
To meet the regulation requirements, this binder contains useful information on the chlorine
system. The technical information herein may be used as a training reference in initial and
recurring operator and maintenance training. Training on process fundamentals, operations, and
maintenance, coupled with the recommended process modifications discussed below, will reduce the potential
hazards to plant personnel and the surrounding community.
An Emergency Response Program and an Incident Investigation
Program are included. These two programs should be
an integral part of both initial and recurring training.
A Risk Management Plan (RMP), in the format required by the EPA, is included at the end of the main body of this
document. It consists of a summary of data elements as required by EPA for inclusion in a public access database.
The RMP is intended to inform the public of Algiers WPP's
proactive stance toward protection of the environment and the surrounding community.
The Hazard Assessment is comprised of a Worst Case and Alternative Release Scenario for the
chlorine system, as well as a 5-Year Accident History for the same. The Hazard Assessment was
conducted as an initial screening procedure as part of determining which Program Level (I, II, or
III) the Algiers WPP falls. Residences lie within the EPA-defined endpoint concentrations of
Algiers' Worst-Case releases. Therefore, the plant is ineligible for Program I. The Algiers Water
Purification Plant is operated by public personnel and therefore excluded from Program III.
Algiers Water Purification Plant is included in Risk Management Program II. The Hazard
Assessment is provided in Chapters 1 through 3.
Worst Case Scenario
The Worst Case Scenario (WCS) is defined as a ton container (2,000 pounds) of chlorine being
released by a catastrophic event within a 10 minute duration. A mitigation factor of 0.55 is
allowed for this process due to the building which encloses the chlorine system. This scenario
was developed and modeled using the EPA approved RMP Comp model. The toxic endpoint
for chlorine was determined to be 0.9 miles for RMP Comp at the 3 ppm concentration specified
by the EPA. It should be noted that at this concentration, a person may be exposed for up to one
hour without suffering permanent injuries (ERPG-2).
Alternative Release Scenario
The Alternative Release Scenario (ARS) of chlorine was also modeled using RMP Comp. An
estimation of approximately 348 pounds of chlorine gas released was derived from the scenario
of a flexible connection failure. This release is contained within the chlorine storage room. The
Algiers WPP has a scrubbing system as a means of chlorine release mitigation, which may be
considered when modeling alternative release scenarios. The scrubber is sized to neutralize the
2000 pounds of chlorine (the entire contents of a 1-ton container.) As a result, the radius of
impact would effectively be zero. However, for RMP reporting purposes the minimum radius is
5 Year Accident History
One (1) qualifying chlorine accident has been documented within the past 5 years. In 1997, a
minor release of chlorine occurred due to a partially open valve in a chlorine purge line. The
purge line was used to evacuate the chlorine supply piping during container changes and
maintenance. A valve was inadvertently left slightly open allowing a undetermined but sm
amount of chlorine to escape to the exterior of the building. The purge system has since been
taken out of service and replaced by a system which can not vent to the outside. There were no
known exposure related injuries from this incident to either on-site or off-site receptors,
although a lawsuit was subsequently filed against the Sewerage & Water Board by nearby
property owners alleging damages from chlorine.
The Management Program consists of the Document Management System described below:
Document Management System
A Document Management System was established to attribute responsibility for the
development, implementation, and maintenance of the Risk Management Program. The
Program must be updated every three years, or any time a covered process undergoes a physical
or administrative modification. The Document Management System is largely a function of the
Risk Management Program Team, described below in Table ES-1.
nagement Program Team
Tables ES-1 lists the employees responsible for the Risk Management Program development,
implementation, and maintenance. The Plant Superintendent has the ultimate responsibility.
The Prevention Program is more appropriately entitled the Accidental Release Prevention Program. It is comprised of Safety
Information, Hazard Review, Operating Procedures, Training, Maintenance, Incident
Investigation, and Compliance Audit procedures. Each has an entire chapter devoted to it in this RMP, and is described in
more detail below.
Safety Information is divided between Chemical Safety Information and Process Safety
Information. Each is briefly described below.
Chemical Safety Information
Comprehensive chemical data is provided in this section to include; regulatory reporting action
thresholds, health hazard and chemical exposure limitations, as well as physical properties of
chlorine. This information
was compiled from numerous sources, and is intended to be a one-stop source
for the reader seeking data on this compound. The physical data will provide useful
information in the inevitable event the plant process is modified, thereby requiring revisited
dense gas dispersion modeling. It is also imperative that plant operators and managers are
appraised of the potential health hazards and exposure limits associated with this chemical.
Process Safety Information
Process Safety Information was meticulously compiled on each system studied. Basic
specifications on each process are included in this document for easy reference. Details such as
Maximum Intended Inventory, Safe Upper and Lower Temperatures, Safe Upper and Lower
Pressures, and Codes and Standards Used to Design, Build and Operate the Process are
provided in this section. Used as a training reference, together with the Process Schematics, the
reader will readily understand the function and operation of t
he plant chlorine system.
A Hazard Review was also conducted for the chlorine system. The Hazard Review technique
used was a hybrid Hazard and Operability Study (HAZOP), in the form of a "What If" analysis.
The "What If" was developed from HAZOP experience at similar chlorine systems. The Hazard
Review team consisted of plant management, process operating and maintenance experts,
outside process design engineers, and consultants knowledgeable in the Hazard Review process
The result of the Hazard Review is a set of recommendations for the plant to implement. Rule
40 CFR 68.50 requires the Sewerage & Water Board to ensure that problems identified are
"resolved in a timely manner." For those items that can not be promptly resolved, it is
recommended that a schedule be developed that addresses those issues, with responsibility for
each assigned to the appropriate personnel.
Please note that these are not the recomme
ndations of Camp Dresser & McKee, Inc. Rather,
they are recommendations developed by the Hazard Review Team with a consensus from all
team members. CDM's role was to facilitate the Hazard Review process.
Recommendations are summarized below:
@/@ Ensure that chlorine supplier uses proper equipment (i.e., flatbed truck)
@/@ Enforce Chlorine Purity Standards
@/@ Reevaluate the use of the chlorine blowdown (purge) line. Consider engineering alternatives.
(This has been addressed. The blowdown line has been removed.)
@/@ Install gas filters before the chlorinators.
@/@ Consider the installation of ceiling mounted room heaters rather than portable space heaters.
@/@ Locate a chlorine detector outside of the chlorine room (ex. near recycle basin).
@/@ Develop an improved emergency response plan.
Basic chlorine system operating procedures have been developed and documented for the
Algiers WPP. They provide system descrip
tions, specifications, and operating procedures for the
chlorine gas system. Procedures include Start-up, Shutdown, Normal, Abnormal, and
Emergency Operation. Also included are Troubleshooting Procedures.
Training is required by the EPA to be included in the Risk Management Program. A program
has been developed with guidelines on how to conduct regular and structured plant training.
Training Record Forms are included with the Program for the required documentation.
Additionally, a Training Record has been compiled and included for all affected personnel
associated with the covered processes.
Basic chlorine system maintenance procedures have been developed with associated
documentation forms. Sound preventive maintenance will reduce potential hazards to personnel
onsite, as well as to the off-site public. In the event of an inspection or compliance review, state
and federal regulators will request to see documentation and record keeping
associated with the
An Incident Investigation Program has also been developed. The EPA has established strict
guidelines to follow in the aftermath of any release involving the chlorine system. The Incident
Investigation Program outlines key milestones that must be accomplished within 24 hours of
any covered incident, and the actions that must occur subsequently. Ultimately, it is desired that
the plant learns from the incident and takes action to prevent similar incidents in the future.
Incident Investigation Report Forms are included, and must be maintained for a minimum of
five years after each incident.
Internal Compliance Audits must be conducted every three years to verify compliance with the
programs and procedures contained in this document. The Plant Manager must certify that the
Risk Management Program team has evaluated compliance with the provisions of the Program,
and verify that
the procedures and practices are adequate and are being followed. Audit Report
Forms are provided, the two most recent of which must always be maintained. This means that
in the year 2006, the Compliance Audit Report for the year 2000 may be discarded.
Emergency Response Program
The Emergency Response Program is included as part of the Risk Management Program, in case
a significant release ever occurs. As in all the above programs, it is important to review this
program regularly. The Rule, 40 CFR 68.95 requires training for all employees "in relevant
procedures" of the Emergency Response Program.
It is recommended that training on the specific plant safety procedures take place upon initial
employment and every year thereafter, as with most of the other RMP training programs. Other
training recommendations, i.e., OSHA 8, 24, and 40 hour training are discussed in the
Emergency Response Program as appropriate to the level of response.
Risk Management Plan
copy of the Risk Management Plan (EPA Submittal) is provided in Appendix D. As stated
previously, this document is public information. Its purpose is submission to the EPA to be
uploaded on a public-access database. No other portion of the Algiers WPP Risk Management
Program must be made available to the public.
Summary of Action Items for the Algiers Water Plant
The RMP Rule, 40 CFR 68.42 requires that details of all accidental releases be recorded from this
date forward. The format details are provided in Sections 2 and 10.
The RMP Rule, 40 CFR 68.15 requires that the Document Management System (e.g., the RMP
Team) be updated anytime personnel changes or administrative changes are made that would
affect the lines of authority or responsibility for maintaining the RMP at the Algiers Water
Purification Plant. The format details are provided in Section 3.
The RMP Rule, 40 CFR 68.54 requires that each employee presently operating a process, and
each employee ne
wly assigned to a covered process be trained or tested competent in the
operating procedures. As an alternative, the S&WB may certify in writing that the employee has
the required knowledge, skills, and abilities to safely carry out the duties and responsibilities as
provided in the operating procedures. Training documentation forms are provided in Section 7.
CDM facilitated the development of operating procedures for the Algiers WPP, and they are
provided in Section 6. These operating procedures may be used as training guides as well.
The RMP Rule, 40 CFR 68.56 also requires training on the plant maintenance procedures.
Maintenance guidance is provided in Section 7. The S&WB must train or cause to be trained
each employee involved in maintaining the on-going mechanical integrity of the process. To
ensure that the employee can perform the job tasks in a safe manner, each such employee must
be trained in the hazards of the process, in how to avoid or correct
unsafe conditions, and in the
procedures applicable to the employee's job tasks. Refresher training on operating and
maintenance procedures must be provided every three years. Training documentation forms are
provided in Section 8.
The RMP Rule, 40 CFR 68.60 requires incident investigations not later than 24 hours following
each incident. That guidance is provided in Section 9.
The RMP Rule, 40 CFR 68.58 requires the S&WB to certify compliance with RMP Accident
Prevention Program provisions at least every three years to verify that the procedures and
practices developed under the rule are adequate and are being followed. That guidance, along
with Compliance Audit forms, is provided in Section 10.
The Rule, 40 CFR 68.95 requires training for all employees "in relevant procedures" of the
Emergency Response Program. It is recommended that training on the specific plant procedures
take place upon initial employment and every year thereafter, as with most of the o
training programs. Other training recommendations, i.e., OSHA 8, 24, and 40 hour training are
discussed in the Emergency Response Program as appropriate to the level of response. The
Emergency Response Program is discussed in Section 11. Training documentation forms are
provided in Section 10.
The S&WB must submit the Risk Management Plan (RMP) to the appropriate agency by June 21,
1999. The RMP is a summary of the Program, and is located in Section 12. The RMP will be
submitted electronically using EPA's RMP Submit software.