Knoxville Utilities Board - Mark B. Whitaker WTP - Executive Summary

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Accidental Release Prevention & Emergency Response Policies 
In accordance with the provisions of Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations, Part 68 of the Clean Air Act Amendments,  the Knoxville Utilities Board's (KUB's) Risk Management Plan (RMP) is an integrated approach to identify and manage the hazards posed by an accidental chlorine release. This plan consists of three major components: a Hazard Assessment, a Prevention Program, and an Emergency Response Plan.  
Facility Information & Regulated Substances 
Mark B. Whitaker Water Treatment Plant  
The Mark B.Whitaker (MBW) Water Treatment Plant consists of mixing, coagulation, sedimentation, filtration, pre- and post-chlorination, and pH adjustment. The facility can treat up to 50 million gallons per day, and maximum chlorine storage capacity is 48,000 pounds. 
Off Site Consequence Analysis 
Each hazard assessment consisted of worst-case and alternative scenarios in order to evaluate the potential impacts of accidental releases of chlo 
rine on the public health and environment.  
    Worst Case Release Scenario  
   Mark B. Whitaker uses chlorine in one (1) ton cylinders; therefore, the worst case scenario was based on the assumption that approximately 2,000 pounds of chlorine would be released. All calculations for air dispersion modeling were performed with RMP Comp Version 1.06 and results were mapped by using the Cameo Suite (Cameo, Marplot, and Aloha).  The worst case scenario was evaluated at a release duration of 10 minutes and at a release rate of 110 pounds/minute.  Air dispersion modeling resulted in a distance to endpoint of 0.9 miles. 
    Alternative Release Scenario  
   KUB's process hazard analysis (PHA) indicated a chlorine release would most likely occur due to a failure in the chlorination system piping; therefore, modeling for the alternative scenario was based on this assumption. All calculations for the air dispersion modeling were performed with RMP Comp Version 1.06 and results were mapped by using the  
Cameo Suite (Cameo, Marplot, and Aloha).  The alternative scenario was evaluated at a release duration of 10 minutes and at a release rate of 3,200 pounds/minute. Modeling resulted in a distance to endpoint of 0.6 miles.  
Five Year Accident History 
In addition to the off-site consequence analysis, a five (5) year accident history was compiled for MBW.  In the past five years, there have been no accidents related to chlorine releases.  However, during the month of May 1999, there was a "near miss" incident investigated at the Mark B. Whitaker Water Treatment Facility. Although the incident involved failure of a cable during a routine cylinder unloading operation,  there was no release of chlorine, no injuries, and no property damage resulted from the incident. The investigation revealed the root cause(s) of the incident were inadequate administrative control procedures and a defective cable. Since the incident, steps have been taken to ensure that proper procedures and control measures 
are in place to prevent such an incident from recurring in the future. 
Prevention Program 
KUB's accidental release prevention program is based on OSHA's Process Safety Management Standard, 29 CFR 1910.119 and addresses the following 10 elements tailored to our facility's operations. In accordance with the Process Safety Management provisions incorporated into the Risk Management Program, KUB promotes prevention programs in each of the major areas listed below:  
    Management System 
    Process Hazard Analysis 
    Process Safety Information 
    Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) 
    Employee Training 
    Mechanical Integrity 
    Pre-startup Safety Review 
    Management of Change 
    Compliance Audits 
    Incident Investigation 
Emergency Response Program 
KUB's Emergency Response Program is based on the Chlorine Institute's "Pamphlet 64 - Emergency Response Plans for Chlorine Facilities" and is designed to address the specific emergency needs associated with a chlorine leak. Even though Mark B. Whitak 
er has mitigation systems to minimize the likelihood of a release, KUB has a comprehensive emergency response plan that is complete, up-to-date, and supplemented with emergency response training and drills for employees. KUB's Plan has been submitted to and reviewed by the City of Knoxville Local Emergency Response Committee (LEPC). In the event of an off-site release, the Plan prepares KUB and the Community for a response to and mitigation of accidental chlorine releases in order to limit the severity of such releases and their impact on both public health and environment. 
Planned Changes to Improve Safety 
KUB has recently purchased a work management system called the Mincom Information Management System (MIMS).  Use of this system will help ensure that all chlorine feed systems, including emergency monitoring systems, are properly maintained.  Preventive maintenance work orders will be generated automatically and routed to the designated crew.  In addition, MIMS will easily track an 
d record the use of all KUB equipment (trucks, lab equipment, chlorine cylinder repair kits, emergency response equipment) and schedule service appointments periodically to ensure that employees are using the most reliable equipment for each task.
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