BGMU Water Treatment Plant - Executive Summary
OVERVIEW OF BGMU SAFETY PROGRAM |
Bowling Green Municipal Utilities employees a full time
Safety Director and two part-time Safety Officers. The
Safety Director is responsible for the overall
development, administration and supervision of
activities required by OSHA, EPA, DOT and other federal
and state agencies, to safeguard all BGMU employees.
There are Safety Officers at the Treatment Plants, with
their primary job consisting in Plant Operations and
then secondary as Safety, in which they coordinate all
inspections, safety equipment and employee assistance
in safety at the Treatment Plants.
Bowling Green Municipal Utilities on April 27, 1989
hired a full-time Safety Director so that BGMU could
develop and implement a written Safety Program. With
the hiring be completed, the major obstacle was
achieving compliance in the OSHA, EPA and DOT
so that BGMU and all the employees would
have a safe and healthful work environment. To this
date the Safety Department now handles all of the
compliance programs in the Electric, Water and Sewer
Divisions, with the only exception being environmental
issues that directly involve the Industrial Wastewater
Pretreatment Program, which the Industrial Pretreatment
Director handles. Bowling Green Municipal Utilities
initialized a Safety Committee on October 26, 1994
starting with a member from each work area for a total
of 10 members. This committee makes its
recommendations for health and safety issues that
include investigations of injuries/accidents. Bowling
Green Municipal Utilities insures that each employee
upon being hired is issued an employee handbook, in
which this book explains many benefits, employment
rules, insurance plans, work hours and policies.
Bowling Green Municipal Utilities
develops and conducts monthly safety meetings, which
are coordinated with department supervisors, so that
all employees can attend. The safety meetings that are
conducted with the employees range from Hazard
Communication, Pole Top/Bucket Rescue, First Aid/CPR to
Confined Space training. A complete list of monthly
training is sent to each System Manager three months
prior to the beginning of the new year. The training
for each employee is recorded and filed.
Bowling Green Municipal Utilities also conducts
training sessions with other agencies which include the
local Fire Departments, Local Emergency Planning
Committees, Emergency Medical Services, local
Universities and other local Utilities. This training
with these agencies proves that BGMU has a good
community service orientated background for safety
training. These sessions include but are not limited
to Electrical Saf
ety, Hazardous Materials, Confined
Spaces, Inspections, etc.
Bowling Green Municipal Utilities has established a
policy to ensure that the employees and their workplace
are in a safe and healthful work environment. BGMU is
committed to each employee by providing the employee
with certain safety equipment, with a brief list of:
safety glasses, hard hats, rain gear, hearing
protection, respiratory protection, fall arresting
equipment, etc. The Safety Department is constantly
reviewing each job function (Hazard Assessment), to
ensure that all aspects of health and safety are being
provided to BGMU employees.
Bowling Green Municipal Utilities is committed to
employee health and safety, but due to working
conditions that sometimes cannot be controlled,
accidents occur. If you should suffer any work-related
injury, no matter how minor, it shall be reported to
your supervisor immediately. This injury should also
be reported to the Safety Department so the appropriate
accident reports can be filled out.
Bowling Green Municipal Utilities (BGMU) is a combined
public utility. The accompanying organizational chart
illustrates the general structure of BGMU's Water-Sewer
Division. The Water-Sewer Division in the event of a crisis
specifically writes this Emergency Response Plan for use.
U's Water Treatment Plant serves the potable water
supply needs of the city of Bowling Green, KY and a large
portion of Warren County, KY. BGMU has over 15,600 water
service connections serving the approximation of 54,000
persons within the city limits. Additionally, an estimated
39,000 persons are served via master meters (Western
Kentucky University and Warren County Water District).
The Water Treatment Plant is located north of downtown
Bowling Green, KY at 16 Chestnut Street. BGMU uses the Big
Barren River as their raw water source. BGMU's Water
Treatment Plant provides flocculation, sedimentation,
disinfection, filtration and fluoridation processes for a
capacity of 22.5 mgd. The finished product is pumped from
the clearwells to the distribution system. The average flow
per year is 14.5 mgd.
The distribution system consists of over three hundred
(320) miles of water mains, over 1900 fire hydrants,
thousands of valves, four (4) pumping stations and four (4)
ground level storage tanks which totals eight (8)
million gallons of water. The distribution system is
designed to provide adequate flow for domestic, industrial
and fire fighting needs. The average household uses an
estimated 200 gallons a day.
BGMU's WasteWater Treatment Plant serves the sanitary
and industrial sewage treatment needs of the city of Bowling
Green, KY as well as portions of Warren County, KY. BGMU
has over 15,600 sewer service connections serving
approximately 50,000 persons within the city limits. With
various industries, Western Kentucky University, and those
portions of Warren County that has the service accounts for
another estimated 27,000 persons.
The Waste Water Treatment Plant is located northeast of
downtown Bowling Green, KY at 1189 Preston Street, adjacent
to Hobson Grove Park and Golf Course. BGMU's Wastewater
Treatment Plant utilizes an aerobic digestion and activated
sludge process. Discharge is to the Big Barren River,
tely 800 feet to the rear of the facility.
The average daily flow through the facility is 7.0 million
The wastewater collection system consists of
approximately 190 miles or 996,740 feet of gravity sewer 14
miles or 73,444 feet of force mains, 54 sewer lift stations
and approximately 4,700 manholes.
The Water-Sewer Division has approximately 63 employees
with varied and numerous skills. Many of the supervisors
and all stand-by employees have radio-equipped vehicles
and/or a portable radio with them at all times. On a
rotating basis, crews, and supervisors are "subject to call"
for services needed after hours. In the event of a major
emergency that involves loss of telephone or power radio
communications, designated employees have been instructed to
report to the normal work area for assignment in the
emergency response activities.
The following Emergency Response Plan is designated to
provide detailed resources information to
to emergency conditions. It does not give extensive details
on exact responses to specific events. Individual events
have infinite variability and plans that are too specific
may be useless in response to the event. The Emergency
Response Plan will serve as a list of available
resources/information and contain general instructions
related to selected emergency events.
Bowling Green Municipal Utilities (BGMU) is a combined
public utility. The accompanying organizational chart
illustrates the general structure of BGMU's Electric
Division. The Electric Division in the event of a crisis
specifically writes this Emergency Response Plan for use.
BGMU's Electric Division serves the electrical needs of
the city of Bowling Green, KY and a partial area of Warren
County, KY through the
Kentucky Statue of House Bills Number
146. BGMU has over 23, 400 service connections serving in
the approximation of 48,000 persons within the city limits.
Additionally, an estimated 22,000 persons served via master
meters (Western Kentucky University and Warren County).
BGMU also serves an estimated 3,400 commercial institutes
within the city limits and the county limits.
The distribution system consists of over 340 miles of
electrical lines that run throughout the city via poles and
43 miles of underground services. BGMU also has 12
No.1 Bowling Green Primary which is a 161/69/13kv
station (TVA PRIMARY)
No.2 Lover's Lane, which is a 69/13kv station
No.3 5th and High which is a 69/13kv station
No.4 Shive Lane which is a 69/13kv station
No.5 South Bowling Green which is a 161/69/13kv station
No.6 Cave Mill which is a 69/13kv station
No.7 Kroger which is a 69/13kv station
No.8 South Industrial which is a 69/13kv station
Cabel which is a 69/13kv station
No.10 Jonesville which is a 13/4kv station
No.11 Mimosa Alley which is a 13/4kv station
No.12 Dogwood which is a 13/4kv station
The average daily household usage of electricity in
Kilowatt per hour is 34kwh; this average will probably vary
from day to day depending on the weather. The city of
Bowling Green and including the section of Warren County has
a average usage of electricity of Kilowatt per hour is 2.1
million kWh, depending on the weather. A breakdown of usage
includes Small Businesses and Residential using
approximately 890,000 kWh and Industry usage approximately
The Electric Division has 73 employees with varied and
numerous skills. Many of the supervisors and all stand-by
employees have a radio-equipped vehicle and/or a portable
radio with them at all times. On a rotation basis, crews,
and the supervisors are "subj
ect to call" for services
needed after hours. In the event of a major emergency that
involves loss of telephone or power radio communication,
designated employees have been instructed to report to the
normal work area for assignment in the emergency response
The following Emergency Response Plan is designated for
the Electric Division that is located at downtown Bowling
Green, KY at 801 Center Street, adjacent to the Federal
Building. For more detailed resources information to those
responding to emergency conditions an employee must use the
immediate supervisor for information. It does not give
extensive details on exact responses to specific events.
Individual events have infinite variability and plans that
are too specific may be useless in response to the event.
The Emergency Response Plan will serve as a list of
available resources / information and contain general
instructions related to the selected emergency events.
EMERGENCY NOTIFICATION PROCEDURES (INTERNAL)
During normal business hours, the Water-Sewer Division
will be responsible for notification of appropriate
supervisors to respond to an emergency condition. After
hours, weekends, and holidays, the Water Treatment Plant
Operator will initiate the notification process. In either
case, the responsible party must make every attempt to notify
the highest-ranking member of the Bowling Green Municipal
Utilities Management who is available. The following list is
to be utilized when emergency conditions exist:
Larry Miller, General Manager
Distribution System Wastewater Treatment Water
Johnnie Hendrick, Crew Supt. Charles Maxwell, C.O.
Jill Hartley, WTP Supt.
Jimmie Bernier Asst. Superintendent Larry Paschal,
Maintenance Terry Hendric
Gary Asbury, Eng. Superintendent Doug Andrews, Q.C.
Doug Roberts, Maintenance
Jeff Bullock, System Maintenance
Win Simmons, Q.C.
NOTE: If communication lines (telephone, pagers, & radios)
are inoperable ALL employees furnished with a BGMU vehicle
should report to their respective normal work stations for
Telephone numbers and addresses of all Water-Sewer Division
personnel are contained in this section.
EMERGENCY NOTIFICATION PROCEDURES (EXTERNAL)
The use of external organizations, personnel or
consultant shall be at the discretion of the highest-ranking
member of Bowling Green Municipal Utilities management who is
available. The following listings may be utilized when
emergency conditions exist.
A. CHEMICAL SUPPLIERS
1. PB&S Chemicals 1-800-950-1727
2. Bill Trotter Enterprises (502) -781-4155
3. HVC/DALY Inc. 1-8
4. Mississippi Lime Company (618) -465-7741
5. Olin Chemicals (314) -862-6705
6. Peridot Chemical Company 1-800-545-2586
7. Tenn-Luttrel Company 1-800-251-9652
8. Van Waters & Rogers 1-800-345-0564
9. Carus Chemical 1-800-435-6856
10. Hexagon Chemical (502) -429-8990
11. Allied Colloids (804) -538-
12. CHEMTREC 1-800-424-9300
13. Chemical Resources (502) -367-2220
14. General Alum & Chemical 1-800-537-7561
1. Scotty's Contracting, Inc. (502) -781-
2. Scott & Ritter, Inc. (502) -781-
3. Scott & Murphy, Inc. (502) -781-
4. Charles Lanphear (502) -824-7257
C. CONTRACTOR SUPPLIES
1. Contractor's Supply, Inc. (502) -782-
2. Whayne Supply Company (502) -843-3215
3. E-Z Rent-It Inc. (502) -842-2526
4. Mid-State Rentals Inc. (502) -842-4440
D. ELECTRICAL CONTRACTORS & SUPPLIERS
1. CED Inc. (502) -781-2229
2. M & L Electrical, Inc. (502) -781-
3. Power-Lite Electric Supply (502) -842-
4. Randolph, Hale, & Merideth (502) -781-
5. Speakman Electric Company (502) -781-
6. Whittaker Electrical Contractor (502) -781-
7. Wholesale Electric Supply (502) -842-
E. ELECTRIC MOTORS
1. Adams Electric Motor Repair (502) -586-
2. Covington Electrical Sales (502) -842-
3. Applied Industrial Technologies (502) -781-
4. General Ele
ctric Company (502) -452-3311
F. PUMP REPAIR
1. Adams Electric (502) -586-7424
2. Covington Electric (502) -842-7174
3. E.B. Williams Electric Co. (214) -631-
4. H.P. Thompson 1-800-597-5066
5. Johnston Pump (708) -629-6313
6. Layne & Bowler, Inc. (901) -725-
7. Western KY Pump & Spray Equip. (502) -842-
G. LABORATORY SERVICES
1. WKU/Ogden Environmental Lab (502) -745-5287
2. McCoy & McCoy Laboratories (502) -821-7375
3. Resource Recycling Technologies 1-800-251-
4. Kentucky State Lab (ONREP) (502) -564-4533
5. CH Diagnostics (970) -667-9789
6. Environmental Health Lab 1-800-332-4EHL
H. CONSULTING ENGINEERS
1. GRW Engineers, Inc. 1-800-432-9537
D.R. Engineers, Inc. (606) -223-
3. C.D.M. (502) -452-1700
I. OTHER UTILITIES & KNOWLEDGEABLE PERSONS
1. Warren County Water Districts (502) -842-0052
2. Warren Rural Electric Co-Op (502) -842-
3. Robert N. Adams, P.E. (D.O.W.) (502) -746-
4. Brents Dickinson, P.E. (502) -781-6135
5. Kentucky NREPC Div. Of Water (502) -564-3410
6. Kentucky Rural Water Association (502) -843-
7. KWWOA (502) -933-0242
Telephone Numbers of other information sources are
included in this section.
* Denotes not Certified by the Commonwealth of
HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND RELATED INFORMATION SOURCES
Office of Emergency Preparedness (In 502-846-2488
Department of Environmental Contr
(In your Area)
Fire Marshal's Office (In you Area) 1-800-255-2587 (non office hrs)
Bureau of Explosives 202-835-9500
National Response Center (USCG & EPA) 800-424-8802
Department of Defense Nuclear 505-264-4667
U.S. Army Explosive Ordinance 301-667-5182
Center of Disease Control 404-663-5315
Poison Control Center 800-722-5725
ACFX Rail Car Manufacturer 314-724-7850
GATZ Rail Car Manufacturer 312-621-6200
NATZ Rail Car Manufacturer 312-648-4000
American Petroleum Institute 303-457-7000
Association of American Railroads 202-293-4048
Chlorine Institute 212-682-4324
Compressed Gas Association 212-354-1130
Dow Chemical Company 517-636-4400
DuPont Chemical Company 302-774-7500
U.S. Department of Transp
National Transportation and Safety 800-424-0201
U.S. Railroad Administration 202-426-4000
U.S. Coast Guard 202-426-2158
U.S. Corps of Engineers 202-545-6700
Federal Emergency Management Agency 202-646-4600
U.S. Department of Agriculture 202-447-2791
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Services 202-343-5634
National Response Center 800-424-8802
EMERGENCY RESPONSE HOTLINES
EPA Hotline 1-202-382-4770 TSCA (Toxic 1-800-424-9065
EPA, RCRA, 1-800-424-9346 TSCA Hotline 1-202-554-1404
of Solid Waste
Chemical 1-800-535-0202 Inspector 1-800-424-4000
Preparedness Whistle blower
Hotline, CERCLA Hotline
EPA Regional Fraud, Waste, 1-800-424-5454
Offices VI 214-655- and
I 617-565- 6444 Mismanagement
3715 VII 913-236- Hotline,
II 212-264- 2800 Federal
2525 VIII 303-293- Emergency
III 215-597- 1603 Management
9800 IX 415-974- Agency (FEMA)
IV 404-347-4727 8071
V 312-353-2000 X 206-442-
EPA Small 1-800-368-5888 Texas Tech 1-800-858-7378
Safe Drinking 1-800-426-4791 National 1-217-333-3611
Water Hotline Animal Poison
Office of Air 1-919-541-5517 U.S. Army 1-202-272-0001
Quality Corps of
Planning and Engineers
OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY
GENERAL CHEMICAL INFORMATION
OSHA 1-202-523-6091 Public 1-800-828-4445
OSHA 1-513-684-2531 Department of 1-202-245-6296
Laboratory Health and
(Ohio) Human Services
OSHA 1-801-524-5287 National 1-800-648-6762
Analytical Resources &
(Salt Lake Council,
City) INFOLINE on
Offices VI 214-767-
I 617-223- 4731
6710 VII 816-374-
II 212-944- 5861
3426 VIII 303-837-
III 215-596- 3883
1201 IX 415-556-
IV 404-881- 0584
3573 X 206-442-
V 312-353- 5930
Offices VI 214-767-
I 617-565- 3301
1164 VII 816-374-
II 212-264- 2821
4600 VIII 303-887-
III 215-596- 3373
6492 IX 415-556-
IV 404-221- 6746
2422 X 206-442-
V 312-353- 0420
CHEMTREC 1-800-424-9300 Chemical 1-202-887-1100
24 hour Manufacturers
Department of 1-
202-366-4488 CMA Chemical 1-800-CMA-8200
Transportation Referral Center
(U.S. DOT) (Non Emergency
Hotline on CFR- Chemical
49 Regs. Information)
DOT National 1-800-424-8802 National Safety 1-312-527-4800
Response Center Council (NSC)
Association of 1-202-639-2222 American 1-312-692-4121
American Society of
Bureau of Engineers
Explosives (24 (ASSE)
DuPont 1-800-441-9475 National Fire 1-617-770-3000
EPA Regional American 1-216-761-7294
I 617-861- VI 214-767- American 1-513-661-7881
6700 2720 Congress of
II 201-321- VII 913-236- Governmental
6657 3888 Industrial
III 215-597- VIII 303-234- Hygienists
9492 6069 (ACGIH)
IV 404-881-3931 IX 415-974-
V 312-353-2102 7511
National 1-202-632-7970 American 1-800-ATA-LINE
Chlorine is used, on a regular basis, at Bowling Green
Municipal Utilities' Water and Wastewater Treatment Plants.
The Commonwealth of Kentucky mandates the use of chlorine in
Public Water Supplies. Chlorine is used as a pr
secondary disinfectant at the water treatment plant. It is
used as the primary disinfectant at the wastewater treatment
plant. The average amount of chlorine used is 372 pounds
per day at the water treatment plant and 270 pounds per day
at the wastewater treatment plant.
The feed systems consist of five (5) W & T V-Notch type
chlorinators at the water treatment plant and two (2) W & T
V-Notch chlorinators at the wastewater treatment plant.
During normal operation, six (6) cylinders (1 ton each) are
connected in parallel to the manifold system at the water
treatment plant with two (2) cylinders (1 ton each)
connected at the wastewater treatment plant. The manifolds
are a split type with automatic switchover systems allowing
selected amounts of cylinders to be used at a given time.
Storage room capacity at the water treatment is nine
(1 ton cylinders) and six (1 ton cylinders) at the
wastewater treatment plant. Normal operation would be three
(3) cylinders in se
rvice with three (3) cylinders ready to
switch over for use at the water treatment plant. Normal
operation at the wastewater treatment plant would be two (2)
cylinders in service with four (4) cylinders in storage.
All stored cylinders are mounted on cradles, at floor level,
at both facilities.
Within this section are schematics of the chlorine feed
and storage areas for both treatment facilities.
Additionally, equipment information, "Kit B" emergency
repair kit location, and MSDS data and chlorine handline
information are included.
CHLORINE LEAK RESPONSE PROCEDURES
Personnel on duty shall assess the severity of any leak!
A. Maintenance and/or the operator(s), that will handle
loading or unloading of cylinders, shall perform this
function by a group of 2 or more individuals using the
buddy system with proper communications.
1. Communications shall be maintained at all
times during the
loading/unloading of cylinders, or whe
n responding to a leak
by means of radio communications, by the
operators to the Safety person standing by.
2. The Safety person standing by shall verify
3. SCBA's shall be worn during any maintenance or
leak response by the maintenance
technicians, operators, or by observers.
B. Less than 1.0 ppm atmospheric chlorine concentration.
NOTE: Fixed alarm system will alarm at a minimum
concentration of 1 ppm or
C. All personnel or persons will evacuate the area
immediately to don SCBA's and start portable monitoring
(see attached "Portable Monitoring Procedures").
1. If concentration is 3.0 ppm or below,
personnel may assess severity/source of leak
and attempt repairs, if possible. If there
is only one operator on duty, then that
operator will don SCBA and take the Chlorine
meter (turned on and f
unctioning) and proceed
to the chlorine room to determine if it is a
false alarm or an actual leak. If it is a
leak then contact the Chief Operator and
standby Maintenance personnel after 911 is
Classifications of leak responses
1. Small leak or spill -- Response by personnel on site.
a. Examples of small leak -- loose packing
gland, valve intact but not seating properly,
pin-hole leaks in manifolds, connector lines
or feed equipment in which the amount of
leakage has not created an environment in
which can not be controlled for proper
response and corrective actions by means of
shutting down supply, and ventilating area
until area is deemed safe.
2. If there is only one operator on duty and the
concentration of 3.0 ppm to 10 ppm is read at the door
then the operator shall contact the Chief Operator and
the on-call maintenance personnel by either the phone
or by contacting the treatment plant by radio to make
the call for those person(s). DO NOT MAKE ENTRY BY
YOURSELF BUT KEEP MONITORING. IF THE CONCENTRATION
GOES ABOVE 10ppm THEN MAKE THE CALL TO THE FIRE
3. Large leak or spill -- Response by Bowling Green Fire
a. Any leak in the chlorine storage containers,
piping or feed systems that can not be
controlled by shutting down supply, and ventilating
the area in which an amount of chlorine at 10 ppm or
NOTE: Large leaks and/or spills require calling 911
for Bowling Green Fire Department!
SMALL LEAKS OR SPILLS
Cylinder valve packing gland is discharging, outlet leaks:
a. Closing the valve or tightening the packing
gland nut can often stop leaks
stems. Tighten the nut or stem clockwise.
b. Replacing the gasket or adapter connection
can often stop leaks at the valve discharge
Flexible connector lines, manifold assembly or feed
a. Shut cylinder discharge valve immediately and
draw-off gas within the equipment by means
of vacuum operated chlorinators.
LARGE LEAKS OR SPILLS (FOR HAZMAT RESPONSE TEAM)
a. Contact the Bowling Green Fire Department by
b. Contact the appropriate internal personnel.
c. Contact the Safety Department.
d. When leakage is stopped notify manufacturer
and DO NOT MOVE OR REMOVE CYLINDERS.
e. Monitor cylinder until properly removed from
f. DO NOT SPRAY WATER ON ANY CHLORINE LEAK.
Water will react with chlorine to form
ochloric acid thereby increasing
corrosion of the cylinder and equipment.
g. Absorption Systems -- a simple absorption
system consists of a suitable tank
capable of holding the required alkaline solution. The
alkali should be stored in a form such that
a solution can readily be prepared when
needed. After the solution is prepared, the chlorine
can be passed from the container into it
through a connection weighted to hold the outlet
under the surface; do not immerse the container.
CAUTION: When absorbing chlorine in alkaline
solutions, the heat of reaction
is substantial. Caustic solutions can cause burns to
RECOMMENDED ALKALINE SOLUTIONS FOR ABSORPTION
CHLORINE 20 WEIGHT 10 WEIGHT
CONTAINER % %
1b (net) Gal 100% gal
__________ 100% NaOH __________ Na2CO3 __________
____ 1b ____ 1b ____
100 135 65 359 390
150 203 98 538 585
2000 2708 1300 7176 7800
1. When cylinders are in the proper position with
valves lined-up vertically, upper valve
will provide "gas" for use and lower valve will provide
liquid chlorine. Normal chlorination at
BGMU is accomplished utilizing chlorine
2. During shipment, occasionally liquid chlorine
will be trapped in the upper education port
or piping within the cylinder. For this purpose, heaters
are installed on the chlorine manifold for
the purpose of evaporating such liquid
amounts. Heaters must be operational at all times.
STANDARD FUSIBLE PLUG FOR TON CONTAINERS
1. All ton containers are equipped with fusible
metal pressure relief devices. Most have 6
(six) fusible metal plugs, three in each end,
spaced 1200 apart. The fusible metal is
designed to yield or melt between 1580F and
1650F(700C & 740C) to relieve pressure and
prevent rupture of the container in case of
fire or other exposure to high temperature.
Types of Leaks or Release
A. Continuous Release -- chlorine can be
released from a point source over a period of
time. An example of such a release is a leak
through a faulty flanged joint. Such a leak
will get worse until the condition is
corrected. Until that time the down-wind
hazards will continue.
B. Slug Release -- a slug release will occur if
a vessel incurs a large puncture or ruptures.
Large quantities of chlorine will be
discharged in a short time. In the case of a
puncture in the upper (vapor) portion of the
vessel about one-fourth of the liquid
(depending on the liquid temperature) will
rapidly evaporate or "flash off". This will
cool the remaining liquid to the atmospheric
boiling point. The evaporation rate of the
remaining liquid primarily depends on the
heat input from the atmosphe
re. In the case
of a puncture in the liquid phase, liquid
will be expelled through the hole until the
liquid drops to the lip of the opening. Most
of the liquid expelled will "flash off" as it
comes out of the tank, but some may spill on
the ground. The evaporation rate of the
spilled liquid depends on heat input from the
ground and from the sun. Reducing the
surface area of the spill will reduce the
evaporation rate. The addition of water
streams will provide additional heat and will
increase the evaporation rate.
Mathematical modeling has been done to estimate
the dispersion characteristics of chlorine gas
cloud from a release. The area and exposure duration depend
upon the total quantity released, the rate of release, the
height of the release
point, and weather
conditions. These factors are difficult to evaluate in an
emergency situation. Chlorine downwind can vary from barely
detectable to high concentrations.
Effect of Chlorine on the Environment
A. Vegetation - chlorine causes bleached spots
on leafy plants due to attack on chlorophyll
in the leaf. Mature leaves are most
susceptible to chlorine injury. Usually the
plant itself is not destroyed although yield
or growth rate may be retarded.
B Animals - The U.S. National Institute for
Occupational Safety and Health 1980 "Registry
of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances"
lists the following inhalation LC50's
(concentration of chlorine in air lethal to
50% of the defined animal, exposed over the
specified time period):
Human ---840ppm/30 minutes
Rat --- 293ppm/60 minutes
Mouse --- 137ppm/60 minutes
For an unspecified species of mammal the
lowest concentration of chlorine in air
(other than LC50) which has been reported to
cause death in humans or animals is listed as
C. Aquatic Life -- Chlorine is only slightly
soluble in water and there would be little
absorption from a cloud of chlorine gas.
Many forms of aquatic life are adversely
affected by chlorine in concentrations well
below 0.1 ppm but harmful concentrations are
unlikely unless chlorine is discharged
directly into water.
DISPOSAL OF CHLORINE REMAINING IN CONTAINER
The stopping of leaks by the emergency devices is only an
interim measure; the ton container must be emptied as soon
as possible. Chlorine may be passed into and
absorbed by a
solution of caustic soda or soda ash. Each 100 pounds of
chlorine to be absorbed requires either at least 125 pounds
of caustic soda dissolved in about 42 gallons of water or
300 pounds of soda ash dissolved in about 100 gallons of
If the chlorine cannot be consumed or absorbed, the capped
or plugged container should be removed to a remote area.
Consult with the chlorine supplier immediately & arrange for
CHLORINE KIT B LIMITATIONS
Some ton containers in current use are of such design that
application of kit "B" devices might be difficult or
impossible. Among these are included those containers with
double-dished heads; with fusible plugs located too close to
valve protection hood lugs (precluding proper placement of
device 4); with valve protection hood fastened by means of a
single stud located between the two operating valves
(precluding use of device 12); and, with over-sized valve
(precluding proper seating of gasket 4-12BMV, 12 BBV
or 12MV and of hood assembly 12A.)
Kit "B" devices also are unsuitable for stopping leaks
around the chime of ton containers.
FIRST AID FOR CHLORINE EXPOSURE
ALWAYS CALL 911 FOR SOMEONE THAT HAS EXPOSED TO CHLORINE!!
A. Be cautious, do not become a casualty
B. Prompt treatment is essential. Firmness and
assurance to exposed persons will assist in
C. Immediately remove exposed person to an
D. Remove any contaminated clothing and wash
contaminated parts of the body.
E. Never give anything by mouth to an
F. Call 911 and obtain medical assistance.
Chlorine Gas Inhalation
A. When Breathing has Ceased.
1. Commence artificial respiration
2. Administer oxygen as soon as possible.
The SCBA will be sufficient enough
until the ambulance gets to the plant.
B. If Breathing has not Ceased.
1. Place patient in a comfortable position.
2. Administer oxygen as soon as possible.
The SCBA will be sufficient enough
until the ambulance gets to the plant.
3. Keep patient warm and at rest.
4. Render any other necessary first aid.
Liquid Chlorine Eye Contact
A. Flush eyes immediately with copious amounts
of running water for 15 (fifteen) minutes.
B. Forcibly hold eyelids apart to ensure
complete irrigation of eye and lid tissues.
C. Do not attempt chemical neutralization of any
Liquid Chlorine Skin Contact
A. Place person in the emergency shower,
removing clothes in shower.
B. Wash well with copious amounts of soap and
C. Apply no greases unles
s ordered by a
A. Protection from chlorine gas must be provided
first of all for the respiratory system
followed closely by protection for the eyes. This normally
takes the form of a full-face mask with
a positive pressure air system.
B. SCBA's are required for any routine
maintenance, connecting or
disconnecting cylinders and loading/unloading or cylinders.
C. Protection for the rest of the body is
available (Tyvex suits) if personnel
determines it is necessary and if the concentration is above
10ppm then the Bowling Green Fire
Department is called for Level A Suit entry.
Gaseous chlorine combines with water
(perspiration) to form a weak acid -
hypochlorous acid. When chlorine gas dissolves in
perspiration, the weak acid creates mild skin
burns similar to those that might be created by strong
. Such burns will become apparent most quickly in
the sensitive areas of the body such as around
the genitals, between the buttocks or under the arms.
Protective clothing should reduce exposure of all body
surfaces to chlorine gas so as to minimize
the physiological damage that may occur. It must be
recognized that a given concentration of chlorine gas will
be more harmful in a hot, moist climate than
in a cold, dry climate. Similarly, it will be more harmful
to a person who is working hard in such an atmosphere than
it will to a person who is quickly passing
through an area.
Liquid chlorine is a very cold liquid, boiling at
-34F (-29C). Contact with such a liquid will
result in frostbite. The only protection is to
remain out of the range of the liquid. Protective
clothing, which will prevent penetration of
chlorine gas, is unlikely to be insu
lated on the
inside and will be ineffective against frostbite.
After Exposure to Chlorine
Personnel should shower immediately after being
exposed to high concentrations of chlorine so
as to wash away the harmful substances and minimize
PROFESSIONAL MEDICAL ATTENTION IS MANDATORY.
A. Protective clothing is for the protection of
rescue, emergency repair crews and it
may be required for the protection of personnel making
routine or scheduled repairs. It should
never be required under routine operating
conditions. When an emergency occurs, the personnel
directly involved must escape from the
hazardous area quickly with special protective
clothing. SCBA's are always in use.
B. Once a chlorine leak has occurred a decision
will be made with the Bowling Green Fire
Department to decide which type of protect
ion will minimize
the hazardous consequences of delay in
controlling the leak.
PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
Location of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
A. Self Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA)
1. In a chlorine-contaminated environment a
self-contained breathing apparatus
(SCBA) shall be used; but only by
trained personnel. Three complete units
are located in the Water Treatment Plant
and the Wastewater Treatment Plant in
areas designated, with spare cylinders
also available. Additional SCBA's are
available if requested.
C. Chlorine Repair Kits
1. A Kit B Chlorine Repair Kit is available
at the BGMU Water Treatment Plant
facility, which is located in the chlorine storage area.
2. A Kit B Chlorine Repair K
it is also
available at the BGMU Wastewater
Treatment Plant facility, which is located in the chlorine
D. Portable Chlorine Monitors
1. There are Three (3) portable chlorine
monitors that are available and shall be
used as required. One of which is located
in the operator's office of the Water
Treatment Plant, the other is located in
the operator's office of the Wastewater
Treatment Plant and the other is at the
Water Sewer Crew Quarters Building.
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
When a chlorine leak occurs, each case must be
handled on its own merits. Decisions must be
made which will minimize the amount of chlorine that is
released while at the same time having others provide
warning or rescue to persons who are in
Normal work cloth
ing will provide all the
protection that is required for the period of
time it takes to escape from an emergency. Such clothing,
in combination with SCBA respiratory
equipment, can be satisfactory for very brief
periods required for rescue or valve closing.
Extended exposure to chlorine gas will be handled
by the Bowling Green Fire Department and their
performance of essential duties will be performed by their
Standard Operating Procedures which will be handled by their
Judgment must be used when high concentrations of
chlorine gas or prolonged exposure is required or
when persons may not have the option of moving out
of the chlorine gas. When the maximum level of
protections will have to be used, the Bowling
Green Fire Department will make that
determination. They have been specifically
trained in the use and li
mitations of such
HAZ MAT ACTIVATION
The activation of the Bowling Green Fire Department
HAZMAT Team is necessary in the event of the release or
spill of a hazardous material in quantities which result in
contaminant levels reaching a point where Level A personal
protective equipment (PPE) must be used, and the chlorine
meter reads 10ppm or greater at the door, and the leak
cannot be controlled.
It is the responsibility of the supervisor to determine
when an emergency situation is, or has expanded to, a HAZMAT
As stated in the Bowling Green Municipal Utilities'
overview, the Bowling Green Fire Department Hazardous
Materials Team will be the primary response to a Chlorine
Emergency, and shall have received the required training and
have readily available to them all the P.P.E. necessary to
safely handle a HAZMAT type emergency. BGMU will have
persons designated as Hazardous Materials Advisors a
they have been completely trained in HAZMAT and Chlorine
Procedures and will respond and remain "on-site" of either
treatment facility during such an event.
It is highly probable that any HAZMAT response will
involve CHLORINE, in either gas or liquid form.
In either event, all person(s) should exit the
facilities traveling toward exits opposite the wind
direction. Wind direction can be determined by observing
the bright orange windsocks located at both treatment
facilities and then traveling to designated response
locations. If possible, SCBA's stored in the operator's
area of the treatment facilities should be brought as you
exit the facilities. There shall be NO RE-ENTRY to the
facility until the supervisor has advised that all is clear.
The following pages are outlines of the Chlorine HAZMAT
program of the BGMU Water-Sewer Division:
BOWLING GREEN MUNICIPAL UTILITIES
HAZARDOUS MATERIAL RELEASE RESPONSE
OVERVIEW - HAZMAT - 29 CFR 1910.120
NOTE: The explanations, definitions, and information
contained herein are limited to the requirements for
emergency response at other than hazardous waste clean-up
(1) APPLICATION (52 FR 29640)
"HAZARDOUS MATERIALS (HAZMAT) TEAM"
"Hazardous materials response (HAZMAT) team" means an
organized group, designated by the employer, who are
expected to perform work to handle and control actual or
potential leaks or spills of hazardous substances requiring
possible close approach to the substance. These team
members perform responses to releases or potential
releases of hazardous substances for the purpose of control
or stabilization of the incident. A HAZMAT team is not a
fire brigade nor is a typical fire brigade a HAZMAT team.
A HAZMAT team, however,
may be separate component of a
fire brigade or fire department.
The Haz-Mat Team that will be responding is the Bowling
Green Fire Departments' Hazardous Materials Team, which
will be responding on a Haz Mat Technician Level with an
On Scene Incident Commander. First Responder Awareness
Level shall be maintained by all BGMU Water-Sewer Division
employees to which there will be also designated Haz Mat
Advisors to respond with the Bowling Green Fire
Department Hazardous Materials Team. The only employees
that are not First Responder Awareness Level will be office
and engineering personnel.
Treatment plant operator(s), when on duty, shall
monitor and determine the severity of any leak or spill
which could result in a hazardous/emergency incident.
All leaks or spills shall be reported to the Chief
Operator immediately, the other treatment plant and
en to the Safety Department. The facilities are
occupied and monitored 24 hours a day and 7 days a
It shall be the responsibility of the BGMU to insure
safety at the site of the emergency with the help of
the Bowling Green Fire Department Safety Officer, and
BGMU's responsibility to insure total site security.
BGMU Employees, will not be specifically assigned for
HAZMAT, but may be utilized as needed for security
purposes after non-contaminated areas have been
established. The facility is fully enclosed with
fencing; all exits are secured from 5:00 p.m. to 6:00
a.m. weekdays. Facility exits/entrances are secured at
all times on weekends.
***RESERVE TECHNICAL GROUP ***
Medical Center Ambulance Services Medical Center
of Bowling Green
250 Park Street
250 Park Street
Bowling Green, Kentucky 42101 Bowling Green,
Phone: 745-5000 or 843-5000 or 911 Emergency Room:
Contact: Randy Fathbuckner Contact: Mary
Kovar (ext. 1863)
Greenview Hospital of Bowling Green
1801 Ashley Circle
Bowling Green, Kentucky 42101
Contact: Carletta Priddy
BGMU staff engineers are available as needed as well as
beyond BGMU'S staff.
Water-Sewer Supt. of Engineering GRW Engineers
Gary Asbury 801 Corporate Park
Phone: 782-1404 (H) Lexington, KY
Phone: 782-4371 (W) 1-800-432-9537
Radio Unit #18
Water-Sewer System Manager Water Plant Supt.
Chief Operator - WTP
Larry Miller Jill Hartley Terry
781-0938 (H) Phone: 843-3506 (H)
Phone: 781-2567 (H)
Phone: 782-4374 (W) Phone: 782-4548 (W)
Phone: 782-4396 (W)
Radio Unit #4 Radio Unit #3 Radio
BGMU General Manager Chief Operator - WWTP
Larry Miller Charlie Maxwell
Phone: 781-0938 (H) Phone: 781-5071 (H)
Phone: 782-4336 (W) Phone: 782-4389 (W)
Radio Unit #36 Radio Unit #1
EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLAN (52 FR 29646)
Must be developed and implemented by all employers to
Be in writing and available for inspection and copying
1) Employees or their representatives;
2) OSHA personnel;
3) Any regulatory agency or its representatives;
4) Suppliers of potentially hazardous materials.
Employers who evacuate workplace in an emergency and do
not allow any employee to respond are exempt from
requirement if they provide an ER plan in
accordance with 29 CFR 1910.38 (a).
ELEMENTS OF AN EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLAN
(A)Pre-emergency planning needs to refer to the
Bowling Green Fire Department SOP's.
(B)Personnel roles, lines of authority, training and
communication needs to refer to the Bowling Green
Fire Department SOP's.
(C)Emergency recognition and prevention needs to
refer to the BGMU Response Plan.
(D)A procedure for handling emergency response needs
to refer to the Bowling Green Fire Department
(i)The Bowling Green Fire Department senior emergency
response official that responds to an emergency
shall become the individual in charge and be the
site-specific Incident Commander. All emergency
responders and their communications shall be
coordinated and controlled through this individual
in charge, and be assisted by the senior official
present from Bowling Green Municipal Utilities.
(ii) The individual in charge of ICS shall be the
Bowling Green Fire Department senior officer,
which will be in charge of the Hazardous Materials
Team and all emergency responders.
(iii) The Bowling Green Fire Department will
operate at the incident site per the Bowling Green
Fire Departments Standard Operating Procedures for
(iv) The individual in charge of the ICS shall
limit the number of emergency response personnel
at the emergency site, in those areas of potential
or actual exposure to incident or site hazards, to
those who are actively performing emergency
operations, with BGMU assisting in the Site
Security and also having personnel in an Advisory
he Medical Center Emergency Medical Services
(EMS), as a minimum, shall also stand by with
medical equipment and transportation capability.
(E)SKILLED SUPPORT PERSONNEL: Personnel, not
necessarily the employer's own employees, who are
skilled in the operation of certain equipment,
such as mechanized earth moving or digging
equipment or crane and hoisting equipment, and who
are needed temporarily to perform immediate
emergency support work that cannot reasonably be
performed in a timely fashion by the employer's
own employees, and who will be or may be exposed
to the hazards at an emergency response scene,
are not required to meet the training required in
this paragraph for the employer's regular
employees. However, these personnel shall be
given an initial briefing at the site prior to
their participation in any emerge
ncy response. The
initial briefing shall include instruction in the
wearing of appropriate personal protective
equipment, what chemical hazards are involved, and
what duties are to be performed. All other
appropriate safety and health precautions that are
provided to the employer's own employees should be
used to assure the safety and health of those
(F)ADVISORY EMPLOYEES: Employees who, in the course
of their regular job duties, work with and are
trained in the hazards of specific hazardous
substances, and who will be called upon to provide
technical advice or assistance at a hazardous
substance release incident to the individual to the
individual in charge, shall receive training or
demonstrate competency in the area of their
(G)FIRST RESPONDER AWARENESS LEVEL: First responders
at the aw
areness level are individuals who are
likely to witness or discover a hazardous substance
release and who have been trained to initiate an
emergency response sequence by notifying the proper
authorities of the release. They would take no further
action beyond notifying the proper authorities of the
release. First responders at the awareness level
shall have sufficient training to have had sufficient
experience to objectively demonstrate competency in the
(a) Understanding of hazardous materials and
(b) Understand the potential outcome when
hazardous materials are present.
(c) Ability to identify hazardous materials.
(d) Ability to recognize hazardous materials in
(e) Understanding the First Responder Awareness
Level's role in a hazardous material
(f) Understand site security and control and the
DOT North American Emergency Response
(g) Ability to recognize the need for additional
resources and to make appropriate
(H)RESPONSE PROCEDURES - The first Responder will
phone 911 for the Bowling Green Fire Department
with the information concerning the incident,
including the location.
(I)Secondary Response will be performed as required
using the Incident Command System.
(J)Critique of response and follow-up:
A written report on the BGFD Haz-Mat Team Response
shall be completed by the On Scene Incident
Commander and submitted to the following for
review and follow-up.
(i) General Manager
(ii) Systems Manager
(iii) Site Plant Superintendent
(vi) Safety Department
(K)PPE and emergency equipment needs to referred to
the Bowling Green Fire Department SOP's.
Once the presence and concentrations of specific
hazardous substances and health hazards have been
established, the risks associated with these substances
shall be identified. Employees who will be working on
the site shall be informed of any risks that have been
identified. In situations covered by the Hazard
Communication Standard, 29 CFR 1910.120,
training required by that standard need not be
NOTE: (c) (7) - Risks to be considered include, but
are not limited to:
(a) Exposures exceeding the permissible
exposure limits and published exposure
(b) IDLH concentrations.
(c) Potential skin absorption and irritation
(d) Potential eye irritation sources.
(e) Explosion sensitivity and flammability
(f) Oxygen deficiency.
Training requirements will be accomplished by the
Bowling Green Fire Department Hazardous Materials
Standards. The Bowling Green Fire Department Hazardous
Materials Team will train at the Bowling Green
Municipal Utilities treatment facilities at a minimum
of twice a year.
PROCEDURE FOR HANDLING EMERGENCY RESPONSE:
Will be the Bowling Green Fire Department senior
official at the scene:
(A) The individual shall establish and become the
individual in charge of a site-specific
Incident Command System (ICS).
(B) Individual in charge of ICS shall identify
hazardous substances and conditions
present and shall address site ana
controls, maximum exposure levels,
hazardous substances handling procedures,
and use of NEW technology.
(C) Based on the hazardous substances or
conditions present, the individual in
charge of the ICS shall implement emergency operations,
and assure that the PPE worn is
appropriate. Minimum protection shall be met.
(D) Individual in charge of the ICS shall limit
the number of ER personnel at the scene
to those actively involved in performing emergency
(E) Back-up personnel shall stand by with rescue
equipment. Basic life support personnel
shall stand by with medical equipment and
(F) Individual in charge shall designate a Safety
Officer who shall identify and evaluate
hazards and provide direction with respect to t
safety of operations.
(G) If an IDLH or imminent danger condition
exists, the Safety Officer shall have
authority to alter, suspend, or terminate activities.
(H) After emergency is terminated, individual in
charge shall implement decontamination
HANDLING DRUMS AND CONTAINERS
(I) Hazardous substances and contaminated
soils, liquids, and other residues
shall be handled, transported, labeled and disposed of
in accordance with this paragraph.
(II) Drums and containers used during
the cleanup shall meet the
appropriate DOT, OSHA, and EPA regulations for the
wastes that they contain.
(III) When practical, drum and containers
shall be inspected and their integrity
assured prior to being moved. Drums or
containers that cannot be inspected before being moved
because of storage conditions (i.e.,
buried beneath the earth, stacked
behind other drums, stacked several tiers high in a
pile, etc.) shall be moved to an
accessible location and inspected prior to
(IV) Unlabeled drums and containers shall be
considered to contain hazardous
substances and handled accordingly until the contents
are positively identified and labeled.
(V) Site operations shall be organized to
minimize the amount of drum or
(VI) Prior to movement of drums or containers
all employees exposed to the
transfer operation shall be warned of the potential
hazards associated with the contents of the drums or
(VII) U.S. Department of Transportation
specified salvage drums or containers
and suitable quantities of proper absorbent shall be
kept available and used in areas where spills, leaks,
or ruptures may occur.
(VIII) Where major spills may occur, a
spill containment program, which is
part of the employer's safety and health program, shall
be implemented to contain and isolate the entire volume
of the hazardous substance being
(IX) Drums and containers that cannot be
moved without a rupture, leakage,
or spillage shall be emptied into a sound container
using a device classified for the material being
(X) A ground-penetrating system or other
type of detection system or device
shall be use
d to estimate the location and depth of
buried drums or containers.
(XI) Soil or covering material shall be
removed with caution to prevent drum or
(XII) Fire extinguishing equipment
meeting the requirements of 29 CFR
Part 1910, Subpart L, shall be on hand and ready to use
to control incipient fires.
HAZARDOUS MATERIALS (HAZMAT) TEAMS
The Bowling Green Fire Department Hazardous
Materials Team will be notified in the event of
an incident and/or emergency.
CONTRACTORS AND SUB-CONTRACTORS
All contractors or subcontractors services while
working in hazardous operations shall inform those
contractors, sub-contractors, or their
representative of the site emergency response
procedures and potential fire, explosion,
safety of other hazards of the hazardous
operations that have been identified in the
employer's information program.
The written safety and health programs shall be
made available to all contractors or
subcontractors or their representative who will be
on the grounds at BGMU.