Citrus World, Inc. - Executive Summary
Chemical Usage: |
Anhydrous ammonia is used at this facility as a refrigerant to chill and preserve our citrus products. The refrigeration process used is totally enclosed preventing chemical leakage under normal operation. Fresh fruit arrives at our facility during the normal citrus fruit harvesting season, which occures from October through May. Fresh fruit is converted into citrus juices for storage in our refrigerated facilities to preserve its fresh quality. Juice remains chilled in storage, by our refrigeration systems, than packaged into finished product for retail sale.
Accidental Release Prevention and Emergency Response Policies:
Citrus World, Inc. maintains a proactive safety policy through employee involvement thus providing a safe environment for our employees and the surrounding local community. We prevent accidental releases through classroom and on the job training of refrigeration personal and ongoing inspection and maintenance of the refrigeration system. New a
dditions to the refrigeration system are located in areas that are not as likely to become damaged (i.e., pipes placed on roofs, tanks placed away and protected from forklifts and truck traffic). Key technical and supervisory personnel are properly trained and equipped to respond to onsite anhydrous ammonia releases, requiring entry into contaminated zones, rescue, risk assessment, spill, and leak control.
Source and Regulated Substances Handled:
Approximately 250,000 lbs. of anhydrous ammonia is contained within the refrigeration system on site and is dispursed among eight refrigeration equipment rooms. No other substances, in quantities requiring an EPA RMP certification requirements, are located at the facility. To aid in operational safety of the refrigeration systems we have designed in two separate processes identified as Process 1 and Process 2. Both processes contain anhydrous ammonia chemical.
Worst Case Release Scenario (Process 1 and 2)
Process 1 encompasses equipment
rooms 1,2,3 and 8 while process 2 contains equipment rooms 5, 6 and 7. Equipment room 4 is not reportable because it contains less than 10,000 pounds of chemical. The vertical anhydrous ammonia high pressure receiver, located outside of equipment room 1 was chosen as our worst case chemical release scenario for both reported processes. The volume of this tank was assumed to be 80% full under an internal pressure of approximately 185 psi and temperature of 95 degrees Fahrenheit. The Worst Case Scenario for this process as required, assumes that the tank's contents are fully released as a gas/vapor over a 10 minute period.
The computer air dispersion model, "Screen3", predicted, with a wind speed of 1.5 meters per second and atmospheric stability class F, concentration above 200 ppm of anhydrous ammonia could reach some areas of the surrounding community.
Alternate Case Scenario Process 1
The Alternate Case Release Scenario was selected to involve a drain line, at the condenser
unit supply line, located on the east side of "C" building, severed by a truck/forklift during loading operations. The 3/4 inch (inner diameter) drain line pipe extends downwards approximately 2 feet from a two inch supply pipe which extends approximately 50 feet from Engine Room #3 to the condenser. Anhydrous ammonia (at 150 psi and 95 degrees Fahrenheit) was estimated to have a flow rate of approximately 90lbs/min from two-phase (gas/liquid) choked flow equations. It is estimated that the supply line could be isolated in approximately 10 minutes by trained operators, with a corresponding total anhydrous ammonia quantity released of approximately 900 lbs. of anhydrous ammonia. The air disperision model predicted, with a wind speed of 3.0 meters per second, that only minor amounts of anhydrous ammonia would travel off site and have only a small affect on the surrounding community.
Alternate Case Scenario Process 2
Due to the simularity of process operating conditions and equipme
nt between process one and process two, the Alternate Case Release Scenario for process 2 provided the identical result. This senario assumes a drain line, at the condenser unit supply line, located on the north side of "O" building, is severed by a truck/forklift during loading operations. The 3/4 inch (inner diameter) drain line pipe extends downwards approximately 2 feet from a two inch supply pipe which extends approximately 50 feet from Engine Room #5 to the condenser. Anhydrous ammonia (at 150 psi and 95 degrees Fahrenheit) was estimated to have a flow rate of approximately 90lbs/min from two-phase (gas/liquid) choked flow equations. It is estimated that the supply line could be isolated in approximately 10 minutes by trained operators, with a corresponding total anhydrous ammonia quantity released of approximately 900 lbs. of anhydrous ammonia. Results of air dispersion computer modeling predict only minor amounts of anhydrous ammonia will reach offsite.
se Prevention Program:
Citrus World, Inc. standard policy requires daily monitoring and inspections of the anhydrous ammonia refrigeration system by trained employees, or contracted services personnel, in accordance with OSHA and IIAR guidelines. Necessary repairs to the refrigeration system are made in a prompt, safe manner.
5 Year Accidental History:
We have experienced a total of five incidents of employee injury due to incidental exposure to ammonia. Four incidents had resulted in minor medical treatment, with only one incident requiring admission to a hospital. The hospitalization occured on Mach 25, 1997, resulting from employee exposure to a one pound anhydrous ammonia release occurred at an oil drain valve on a shell and tube type heat exchanger in our Single Strength Department, during routine maintenance. The release was a result of human error, which resulted in one employee being admitted to the hospital for second degree burns on his arm and chest. There were no oth
er injuries or property damage as a result of this accident. The chemcial did not travel off site and it was contained within the building and the leak was stopped quickly. The routine maintenance procedure was changed and all operators have been trained on the procedure.
Emergency Response Program:
During normal weekday operation, the facility emergency response plan consists of employee notification and evacuation, followed by immediate notification of the appropriate community reponse agencies. Maintenance and technical personnel have received hazardous material technician level training in accordance with OSHA 29 CFR 1910.120(q)(iii). Supervisory personnel have received incident commander level training in accordance with OSHA 29 CFR 1910.120(q)(v). A facility emergency evacuation plan have been prepared and disseminated to facility personnel. Evacuation routes in case of an anhyrdous ammonia release, are noted in the plan.
Red Cross shelter resouces in the Lake Wales area
consist of pre-arranged service agreements with the local school board and some local churches. Schools that would serve as a Red Cross shelter would provide space and cafeteria food to shelter inhabitants. Schools would be reimbursed for food/supplies by the Red Cross, In addition the local Red Cross office is capable of supplying shelter kits consisting of basic first-aid supplies and blankets. Activation of a Lake Wales area Red Cross shelter would be initiated by calling "911." A local fire Department commander would decide if evacuation and shelter were required in a given emergency, who would then notify the county emergency management agency, who would in turn direct the Red Cross to activate the designated shelter. Reference: Lake Wales Red Cross office, Tom Costello, Executive Director (941) 294-5941.
Planned Changes to Improve Safety:
Future plans to improve anhydrous ammonia refrigeration system safety include upgrading the current anhydrous ammonia detection syste
m to provide local building alarms at 39 plant locations. The upgraded alarm system will be networked to stations located at the Security Guard House, Central Refrigeration Control Room, and Emergency Response Headquarters, and the emergency response pager system. Other plans to improve safety consist of continuing annual operator refresher training, hazardous materials technician and incident commander training, and refrigeration system process safety management program inspection audit annually.