Affiliated Foods - Executive Summary

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                            AFFILIATED  FOODS 
                         RISK MANAGEMENT PROGRAM 
                                                    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 
1.  General accidental release and prevention policy of Affiliated Foods. 
In this frozen food distribution center we utilize anhydrous ammonia as a refrigerant.  Anhydrous 
ammonia is considered hazardous by the Environmental Protection Agency. The same properties 
that make ammonia a valuable refrigerant also makes it necessary to observe certain safety 
precautions during it's use to prevent exposure to our workers, the surrounding community and 
the environment.  
It is our policy at Affiliated Foods to implement the requirements of the Risk Management 
Program by managing and operating this facility in full compliance with all applicable federal and 
state regulations that we are governed by. The objective is to minimize the risk of an accidental 
release of hazardous materials. Safety depends directly on 
our proper handling of ammonia. Our 
plant personnel have been trained on the equipment operating procedures and the various safety 
devices that are incorporated in our facility to prevent the possibility of accidental releases. 
2.  Stationary source and regulated substance handled. 
Affiliated Foods, 12103 I-30, Little Rock, Arkansas, operates a refrigeration system utilizing 
anhydrous ammonia as the primary refrigerant.  
Mechanical refrigeration is a thermodynamic process where the refrigerant, ammonia, is used as a 
heat exchanging fluid to maintain a desired temperature in an enclosed environment. The 
refrigeration cycle consists of evaporation, compression, condensation and expansion. 
Evaporation and condensation are designed to alter the quantity of energy associated with the 
refrigerant. Compression and expansion are designed to change the availability of the associated 
energy. The refrigeration cycle is a closed loop process. The ammonia cycle utilizes fluid 
perature, pressure and latent heat of vaporization for cooling. The refrigeration system uses 
this phenomenon to remove heat from a desired space, and then to discard that heat through 
condensation, to an area where it is of no consequence. 
The Affiliated Foods facility uses ammonia refrigeration to maintain storage room temperatures 
for various types of fresh and frozen food distributed to their customers. The refrigeration system 
contains the following equipment: Three screw compressors, one evaporative condensers, one 
high pressure receiver, one recirculator, one accumulator, one balance tank, twelve cooler/freezer 
evaporators and a system purger. The refrigeration system contains 14,000 pounds of aggregate 
There are approximately 350 employees at this facility which includes hourly and salary personnel.  
This distribution facility receives and prepares shipment of frozen and refrigerated food products 
via tractor trailers approximately 24 hours a day, six da 
ys a week.   
The potential hazards that could lead to an accidental release of the ammonia include, but are not 
limited to, equipment failure, damage to piping, damage to equipment, human error, etc. 
Although ammonia is a colorless, tasteless liquid, it's dominant characteristic is it's pungent, 
distinct odor.  Persons exposed to ammonia will not voluntarily stay in areas of even small 
concentrations, although these levels would not normally result in any health risks. Risks from 
accidental exposure to ammonia in a vapor state are irritations to the eyes, nose and throat. The 
extent of irritation depends on the exposure amount and length of time exposed.   
Ammonia is classified non-flammable by the Department of Transportation.  Ammonia will burn, 
but only in a very narrow concentration level when accompanied with a constant ignition source. 
3. Worst case  and alternate case release scenarios including administrative and 
engineering controls to limit/ prevent accident 
al release. 
Worst case scenario depicts continuous source leak from the High Pressure Receiver located 
inside the plant machine room.  This vessels normal operating level is 5,500 pounds of liquid 
ammonia,  approximately 50% of it's total capacity. Although the receiver is capable of holding 
11,000 pounds of liquid ammonia, this far exceeds company policy  and engineering controls 
which limits the liquid level to a maximum of 80% at any time.  Considering the "catastrophic" 
possibility does exist for this vessel to release it's entire contents, engineering controls 
incorporated into the system would normally prevent such a release. 
    Worst case release scenario criteria for the Affiliated Foods facility: 
    Ammonia Quantity:                  5,500 pounds 
    Rate of Release:                   550 lbs / min. (10 min. release) 
    LOC (Level of Concern):            200 ppm  (EPA ERPG-2)   
    Physical State:                    Gas  
          Type of Area:      
    Wind Speed:                        1.5 m/sec 
    Distance to Endpoint                    1.4 miles 
Alternate release scenario is represented by the release of ammonia vapor from a safety relief 
valve (SRV) due to an overpressurization condition on the high temperature recirculator vessel 
located within the Affiliated Foods facility machine room. The indicated relief valve would be 
performing exactly as it is designed to do during an overpressurization condition. Valve would 
open to relieve the over-pressure and vent into the atmosphere via the roof vent pipe. 
    Alternate case release scenario criteria for Affiliated Foods facility: 
    Ammonia Quantity:                  150 pounds 
    Rate of Release:                          23 pounds/min. (14 min. release) 
    Wind Speed:                        3.0 m/sec. 
    Distance to Endpoint:                   .1 miles 
    The following administrative and engineering controls are in p 
lace at Affiliated 
Foods. These controls are designed to eliminate, or reduce the possibilities of an accidental 
release from the refrigeration system. 
    *  Electronic ammonia detection in compressor room. Alarm system activates a local 
audible alarm and a pager system indicating an ammonia leak in the monitored areas. 
    *  High level switches are configured to accumulator and recirculators which shut down 
compressor operation during a high level condition. 
    * All compressors are configured with critical safety controls (high pressure, low pressure, 
high oil temp cut-outs, etc.) to shut down the respective compressor in the event of an abnormal 
operating condition. 
    *  Safety Relief Valves are configured to all pressure vessels, condensers and compressor 
oil separators to eliminate over pressurization conditions in those associated pieces of equipment. 
    *  Periodic Maintenance Program is incorporated into the maintenance department to 
ensure the refrigeration system and it's components are kept in optimum mechanical and operating 
4.  Five-year accident history. 
Affiliated Foods facility at Little Rock has had zero accidental releases to report.  
5.   Emergency Response Program 
The purpose of the Affiliated Foods Emergency Action Plan is to: 
    1.   Minimize exposure to our employees and the surrounding community in the event of a 
    hazardous material release or spill. 
    2.  Assure the safe emergency evacuation of the plant in the instance that it is required. 
    3.  Provide for prompt medical attention to any employees who become seriously injured 
    or ill at work. 
    4.  Facility management has developed an Emergency Response Plan to ensure a fast and    
          efficient response in the event of an accidental release of hazardous materials.  
Our Emergency Action Plan currently meets requirements as set forth in OSHA 29 CFR 1910.38, 
Employee Emergency and F 
ire Prevention Plans.  
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