Pactiv Corporation - Executive Summary

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1.   Accidental Release Prevention and Emergency Response Policies 
We at Pactiv Corporation are strongly committed to employee, public and environmental safety.  This commitment is inherent in a comprehensive accidental release prevention program that covers areas such as design, installation, operation, and maintenance of the processes at our facility.  It is our policy to implement appropriate controls to prevent possible releases of regulated substances and to train employees regarding the safe operation of processes involving regulated substances. Although such an event is unlikely, employees are trained to react to unplanned releases of regulated substances.  In addition, the plant has coordinated with local and other emergency response organizations which provide highly trained emergency response personnel to help control and lessen the effects of any unplanned release. 
2.   The Stationary Source and the Regulated Substances  
The main manufacturing activities at this plant invol 
ve the production of plastic consumer products such as polystyrene foam plates, food containers, and trays.  We have one substance present at our facilities that are regulated by United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) under the Risk Management Program.  The substance is iso-pentane; and is referenced in this document by the term "regulated substance".  The iso-pentane at our facility is used as a foaming agent in the production of the polystyrene foam.  This product is also often called a "blowing agent" or "expansion agent". 
The maximum inventory of iso-pentane possible at our facility is approximately 470,000 pounds. Written operating procedures and high-level alarms prevent more than this amount from being present in the tanks.  
3.   Worst Case Release Scenario(s) and Alternative Release Scenario(s), including administrative controls and mitigation measures to limit the distances for each reported scenario 
Under RMP, USEPA requires facilities to determine the effect 
s of catastrophic releases of regulated substances.  In facilities which use flammable regulated substances, USEPA defines the worst 0case scenario for a catastrophic release to be 1 pound per square inch (psi) over-pressure as a result of an instantaneous release of the largest tank volume utilizing no active measures to control the release of the regulated substance under worst-case weather conditions.   USEPA defines alternative release scenarios as 1 psi over-pressure as a result of a timed release of a portion of the largest tank volume utilizing active measures to control the release of the regulated substance under neutral weather conditions.   
To evaluate the worst case scenario for the particular regulated substances and conditions at this facility, we used equations from Appendix D of the USEPA RMP Offsite Consequence Analysis Guidance and RMP Compute, a simplified EPA model based on the EPA's Offsite Consequence Analysis Guidance.  For analysis of alternative release scena 
rios, we also employed the equations provided by the USEPA in the RMP Offsite Consequence Analysis Guidance and RMP Compute.  The following paragraphs provide details of the chosen scenarios. 
Program 3 of the RMP guidance can categorize the activities at the plant.  The projected worst-case release scenario would involve a catastrophic release from the iso-pentane storage.  The scenario involves the release of 160,000 pounds of iso-pentane.  Passive mitigation systems such as dikes were not considered when evaluating this scenario.  The worst case release scenario assumes that the entire quantity of the iso-pentane storage tank is released as a vapor, an ignition source is present and 10 percent of the released quantity participates in a vapor cloud explosion.  Under worst case weather conditions, the maximum distance of 0.43 miles corresponds to an endpoint of 1 psi overpressure.   
The alternative release scenario involves a release from the iso-pentane storage tank assumed to resul 
t in a pool fire.  The scenario involves the release of 20,000 pounds of iso-pentane. The release is controlled by active mitigation measures that include a deluge system and an automatic shut off valve.  Under neutral weather conditions, the maximum distance to the flammable endpoint of 1 psi overpressure is 0.15 miles. 
4.   The General Accidental Release Prevention Program and the Chemical-Specific Prevention Steps 
Our facility has taken all the necessary steps to comply with the accidental release prevention requirements set out under EPA's 40 CFR Part 68.  This facility was designed and constructed in accordance with NFPA-58 Standard, 1967 Edition.  A number of processes at our facility are subject to the OSHA PSM standard under 29 CFR 1910.119.  We also have an air operating permit under Title V of the Clean Air Act. This facility has received a Star Ranking under OSHA's Voluntary Protection Program (VPP) for over 16 years.  The following sections briefly describe the elements o 
f the release prevention program that are in place at our stationary source. 
Process Safety Information 
Pactic Corporation maintains a detailed record of safety information that describes the chemical hazards, operating guidelines and equipment designs associated with the processes. 
Process Hazard Analysis 
Our facility conducts extensive studies to ensure that hazards associated with our processes are identified and controlled efficiently.  The approach used to carry out these analyses is a HAZOP/Modified What If process.  The studies are undertaken by a team of qualified personnel with expertise in engineering, process operations, and safety and are revalidated at a regular interval of approximately every 5 years.  Any findings related to the hazard analysis are addressed in a timely manner. 
Operating Procedures 
For the purposes of safely conducting activities within our covered processes, Pactiv Corporation  maintains written operating procedures for the iso-pentane systems.  Thes 
e procedures address various modes of operation such as initial startup, normal operations, temporary operations, emergency shutdown, emergency operations, normal shutdown and startup after a turnaround. The information is regularly reviewed and is readily available to operators involved in the processes. 
Pactic Corporation utilizes a detailed training program to ensure that employees who are operating processes using regulated substances are skilled in the handling, operation, and maintenance procedures associated with these processes.  Refresher training is provided at least once every year and more frequently as needed. 
Mechanical Integrity 
Pactiv Corporation carries out routine, periodic maintenance inspections and preventive maintenance on process equipment to ensure proper operations.  Process equipment examined these inspections include but are not limited to pressure vessels, storage tanks, piping systems, relief and vent systems, emergency shutdown systems, controls 
and pumps.  Qualified personnel, with training in maintenance practices, carry out maintenance operations.  These personnel are provided specialized training as needed.  Any equipment deficiencies identified by maintenance inspections are corrected in a safe and timely manner. 
Management of Change 
Written procedures at Pactiv Corporation are in place to manage changes in process chemicals, technology, equipment and procedures.  Process operators, maintenance personnel or any other employee whose job tasks are affected by a modification in process conditions are promptly made aware of changes and provided training, as needed, to deal with these changes. 
Pre-startup Safety Reviews 
Pre-start up safety reviews related to new processes and to modifications in established processes are conducted as a regular practice at Pactic Corporation.  These reviews are conducted to confirm that equipment and procedures are complete and suitable for safe startup prior to placing equipment into operat 
Compliance Audits 
Pactiv Corporation conducts audits on a regular basis to determine whether the requirements set out under the RMP rule are being implemented.  These audits are carried out at least every 3 years and any corrective actions required as a result of the audits are undertaken in a safe and prompt manner. 
Incident Investigation 
Pactiv Corporation promptly investigates any incident that results in, or could reasonably result in a catastrophic release of a regulated substance.  These investigations are undertaken to identify the situation leading to the incident as well as any corrective actions to prevent a potential release from reoccurring.  Reports are kept for a minimum of 5 years. 
Employee Participation 
Pactiv Corporation truly believes that process safety management and accident prevention are a team effort.  Company employees are strongly encouraged to express their views concerning accident prevention issues and to recommend improvements.  Many employees part 
icipate in safety initiatives within the plant.  In addition, our employees have access to all information created as part of our facility's implementation of the RMP rule, including information resulting from process hazard analyses, in particular. 
On occasion, our company hires contractors to conduct specialized maintenance and construction activities.  Prior to selecting a contractor, a thorough evaluation of the contractor's safety performance and program is carried out.  Pactiv Corporation has a strict policy of informing contractors of known potential hazards related to the contractor's work and the processes.  Contractors are also informed of the procedures for emergency response should an accidental release of a regulated substance occur. 
Hot Work  
The facility maintains a hot work program and issues a hot work permit for hot work conducted on or near the covered process.  Qualified personnel who complete each permit and fulfill its requirements prior to the start 
of a hot work operation perform hot work.  These permits are kept posted at the worksite until the conclusion of the hot work operation. Completed permits are kept on file for 3 years.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
5.   Five-year Accident History 
Pactiv Corporation has an excellent record of preventing accidental releases over the last 5 years.  There has been no accidental release during this period. 
6.   Emergency Response Plan 
Pactiv Corporation has developed a written emergency response plan to deal with fires and releases of hazardous materials.  The plan includes all aspects of emergency response including prompt notification of local emergency response agencies and the public; emergency evacuations, if necessary; adequate first aid and medical treatment sho 
uld any be necessary.  The plan is promptly updated to reflect any pertinent changes taking place within our processes that would require a modified emergency response. In addition, emergency response equipment (fire extinguishers, etc) is regularly inspected and serviced.  
7.   Planned Changes to Improve Safety 
Several developments and findings have resulted from the implementation of the various elements of our accidental release prevention program.  All recommendations from the last PHA for the iso-pentane systems were completed by October 6, 1998. All recommendations have been completed. 
Our facility has exemplary occupational safety and health programs that encompass employee involvement, recognition for safe work, partnership with OSHA and continuous hazard identification activities.  To enhance our continuous improvement in occupational safety and health, we conduct an annual safety plan evaluation that focuses in on the key areas of safety program management.  OSHA has identi 
fied these areas as the key elements in a safety program.  From the annual safety plan evaluation, actions to correct areas of deficiencies are defined and assigned a responsible party and completion date.  All areas are targeted for completion by the end of each year.
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