TENNESSEE EASTMAN DIVISION - Executive Summary
Eastman Chemical Company, Tennessee Eastman Division: |
This plan was updated on March 21, 2000, and resubmitted due to the removal of nitric acid in threshold quantities from the Kingsport plant site.
I. Accidental Release Prevention and Emergency Response Policies
Tennessee Eastman Division's accidental release and emergency response policies are summarized in our company "Principals of Safety" Document:
"Eastman will conduct all aspects of its business in a manner that provides for the safety of employees, contractors, communities, customers, and the environment."
Our safety process consists of 5 main steps:
- Hazard identification, prevention and control
- Safe design and construction
- Safety and health education and training
- Employee involvement, accountability, and responsibility
- Systematic evaluation for continual improvement
Details of our accident prevention efforts are contained in the Eastman (Kingsport Site) Safe Practices Manual, which deta
ils specific practices and procedures that help ensure the safety of our employees, our contractors, our community, and the environment.
Tennessee Eastman Division's emergency response efforts are contained in the Eastman Kingsport Site Emergency Plan. This plan specifies the responsibilities and duties of Eastman personnel during emergencies and potential emergencies. These responsibilities and duties provide for the prompt mobilization of the Company's resources, including both personnel and equipment in an emergency situation.
These plans are updated as necessary and reviewed in their entirety every three years.
II. Description of Stationary Source and Regulated Substances Handled
Eastman Chemical Company is a leading international chemical company that produces more than 400 chemicals, fibers, and plastics. Eastman does not sell consumer products, but Eastman supplies other producers with materials for products used by consumers. Founded in 1920 in King
sport, Tennessee, as a unit of Eastman Kodak Company, Eastman Chemical Company was spun off in 1994 and is now an independent, publicly held company traded on the New York Stock Exchange (ticker symbol EMN). Eastman has approximately 5,300 customers worldwide and posted 1998 sales of $4.48 billion. With corporate headquarters in Kingsport, Tennessee, Eastman and its subsidiaries employ 16,100 people in more than 30 countries.
The Tennessee Eastman Division of Eastman Chemical Company, also located in Kingsport is one of the largest chemical manufacturing sites in North America. The Tennessee Eastman Division manufactures over 300 industrial chemicals, 1 basic fiber, and 3 basic types of plastics. The Tennessee Eastman Division has 499 buildings and 6,097 acres of land. The 1,200-acre main plant site includes 40.4 acres of warehouse area under roof and more than 1.16 million square feet of office space.
Use of Regulated Substances
The Tennessee Eastman Division handles 12 chemicals
listed in 40 CFR Section 68.130 in threshold quantities. Seven are listed as toxic substances, and five are listed as flammable substances. They are:
RMP Toxic Substances:
1. Anhydrous ammonia
6. Phosphorous Oxychloride (POCl3)
7. Phosphorous Trichloride (PCl3)
RMP Flammable Substances:
10. Ethyl ether
Use of Substances:
1. Anhydrous Ammonia
Anhydrous ammonia is a clear, colorless gas with a sharp, intensely irritating odor. The vapors are irritating to the eyes and respiratory tract. Contact with the liquid can cause frostbite. Long term exposure to low concentrations and short-term exposure to high concentrations can result in adverse health effects from inhalation. It is soluble in water forming a corrosive liquid. Although ammonia is lighter than air, the vapors from a leak initially hug the ground. It is heavier than water and sli
ghtly soluble in water. It accelerates the burning of combustible material. It is corrosive to metals and tissue.
Anhydrous ammonia is used as a refrigerant to provide cooling to buildings and as a process feed for chemical manufacture.
Bromine is a reddish-brown fuming liquid with a pungent odor. It is heavier than water and slightly soluble in water. It accelerates the burning of combustible material. It is corrosive to metals and tissue and the vapors are irritating to the eyes and mucus membranes.
Bromine is used as a raw material to create products used primarily in the photographic market.
Crotonaldehyde is a clear, colorless to straw colored liquid with a penetrating pungent odor. It has a flash point of 55 degrees F. If subjected to heat, it may polymerize. If polymerization takes place in a container, the container may violently rupture. It is lighter than water and slightly soluble in
water. Its vapors are heavier than air. Prolonged exposure to low concentrations or short-term exposure to high concentrations may result in adverse health effects from inhalation.
Crotonaldehyde is used to produce crotonic acid, an industrial intermediate. Crotonaldehyde is also shipped in dedicated railcars to another company location where it is used in the manufacture of food preservatives.
Formaldehyde is a colorless solution of formaldehyde gas in water. It is used to make plastics, other chemicals and fertilizers, as a preservative, as a corrosion inhibitor, and for many other uses. It is combustible. The gas readily vaporizes from the solution and is flammable over a wide vapor-air concentration range. It is heavier than water and is soluble in water. Its vapors are heavier than air. Formaldehyde is a lacrymator and can only be withstood for a few minutes. Breathing is difficult in low concentrations, accompanied by cough and
severe burning to the nose and throat.
Formaldehyde is used as a raw material to create products used primarily in the intermediate solvent market.
Oleum is a colorless to black fuming liquid. It is soluble in water with release of heat. It is corrosive to metals and tissue. It will char wood and most other organic matter. The heat of this charring may be sufficient to ignite the wood or organic matter. The mist is irritating to the eyes, nose and throat. If inhaled it will cause coughing or difficult breathing. The liquid will burn skin and eyes. The material is harmful if swallowed.
Oleum is used as a raw material to create products used primarily in the organic dye market.
6. Phosphorous Oxychloride (POCl3)
Phosphorus oxychloride is a colorless fuming liquid with a pungent odor. It is toxic by inhalation and ingestion and is strongly irritating to skin and tissues. It causes burns to the mucous membranes of t
he mouth and digestive tract and may be fatal. It is decomposed by water to hydrochloric and phosphoric acids with evolution of heat. It is corrosive to metals and tissue.
Phosphorus oxychloride is used as a raw material to create products used primarily in the photographic and agricultural chemical market.
7. Phosphorous Trichloride (PCl3)
Phosphorus trichloride is a colorless or slightly yellow fuming liquid with a pungent and irritating odor resembling hydrochloric or muriatic acid. Long term exposure to low concentrations or short-term exposure to high concentrations may result in adverse health effects by inhalation. Although the substance is not itself flammable, it is a strong oxidizer that may ignite combustible organic materials upon contact.
Phosphorus trichloride is used as a raw material to create products used primarily in the plastic additive and agricultural chemical market.
Acetaldehyde is a clear
colorless liquid with a pungent odor. However, under normal atmospheric temperature and pressure, liquid acetaldehyde will rapidly evaporate into a gas. Its vapors are irritating to the mucous membranes and especially the eyes. If it becomes contaminated, it may either react with the contaminant or polymerize both with the evolution of heat. It is lighter than water and soluble in water. Its vapors are heavier than air.
Acetaldehyde is a base ingredient used to produce other chemicals. It eventually ends up in many products containing fibers and plastics.
Isobutylene is a colorless gas with a faint petroleum-like odor. It is shipped as a liquefied gas under its own vapor pressure. Contact with the liquid can cause frostbite. It is easily ignited. Its vapors are heavier than air and a flame can flash back to the source of leak very easily. The leak can either be a liquid or vapor leak. Vapor is irritating to the eyes, nose, and throat
. If inhaled it can cause dizziness, or loss of consciousness. The liquid can cause frostbite.
Isobutylene is used as a feed stock for manufacture of photographic intermediates.
10. Ethyl Ether
Ethyl Ether is a clear colorless liquid with a characteristic anesthetic odor. It is lighter than water and soluble in water. Its vapors are heavier than air. The vapor is irritating to the eyes, nose, throat, and skin. If inhaled it will cause nausea, vomiting, headache, or loss of consciousness.
Ethyl ether is used as a solvent and in the manufacture of other chemicals.
Propylene is a liquefied compressed gas. It is colorless and has a mild odor. It floats and boils on water. If inhaled, it will cause dizziness or loss of consciousness.
Propylene is used as a refrigerant to create other chemicals that end up in photographic products.
Dimethylamine is used as an aqueous solut
ion of dimethylamine gas dissolved in water. It has an odor ranging from a fish-like to ammonia-like as the vapor concentration increases. It is used to make other chemicals, as a solvent, and for many other uses. It is shipped as a 60% dimethylamine and 40% water solution. The solution is lighter than water and soluble in water. Its vapors are heavier than air. It is corrosive to the skin and eyes.
Aqueous dimethylamine is used as a feed stock for amine based products such as toluidine and anisidine.
III. Worst Case Release Scenario and Alternative Release Scenarios
Toxic Substance Worst Case Scenario
Anhydrous ammonia constitutes the Kingsport site's toxic worst case scenario. In this scenario, the largest vessel containing ammonia is catastrophically ruptured, resulting in the loss of the entire tank contents over a ten-minute period. This scenario has off-site consequences.
Flammable Substance Worst Case Scenario
Acetaldehyde constitutes the Kingsport site's fla
mmable worst case scenario. In this scenario, the largest vessel containing acetaldehyde is catastrophically ruptured, resulting in the loss of the entire tank contents over a ten-minute period. This scenario has off-site consequences.
Toxic Substance Alternate Release Scenarios
For each of the seven toxic substances at the Kingsport site, an alternate release scenario (ARS) was estimated. Of the seven, only five had off-site consequences that affected people or a designated receptor. The ARS for each of these is the rupture of a 2-inch connection to the largest vessel containing the substance in question.
Flammable Substance Alternate Release Scenario
For each of the five flammable substances at the Kingsport site, an alternate release scenario (ARS) was estimated. Of the five, none had off-site consequences that affected people or a designated receptor. The ARS for each of these is the rupture of a 2-inch connection to the largest vessel containing the substance in question
IV. General Accidental Release Prevention Program
The Tennessee Eastman Division utilizes a "layers of protection" approach to protect people and the environment. This approach includes, but is not limited to the following elements
Designing For Safety
- Designs are analyzed for safety prior to their installation, and periodically thereafter, in accordance with the requirements of OSHA's Process Safety Management program. All RMP covered processes are Level Three processes. 11 of the 12 RMP chemicals at the Kingsport site are covered by the Process Safety Management regulation (29 CFR Section 1910.119).
- All operators, mechanics, and contractor personnel who work within the plant are trained and qualified in accordance with Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulations.
- Extensive use of automated safety and backup systems are used to prevent the accidental release of chemicals due to misoperation or process upset.
ing Safe Operations/Auditing Our Operations
- Process systems undergo a safety inspection on a routine annual schedule that includes safety reviews and inspections, adequate piping support, adequate labeling, valve and pipe joint leaks, and pipe and equipment condition. Any discrepancies and defects are corrected before further use. A routine inspection program helps to ensure the integrity of equipment in a given operating system.
- Operators are initially trained on the specifics of the process they will be running. Refresher training is supplied at least every three years.
In addition to the above elements, the Eastman Kingsport Site is a State of Tennessee Volunteer Star site. The Volunteer Star program, administered by the State of Tennessee Department of Labor, is Tennessee's version of the federal Voluntary Protection Program (VPP), a cooperative effort between employers and OSHA to improve worker safety and recognize outstanding safety performance and program
s. Fewer than 400 sites nationwide have qualified for Star status.
V. Five Year Accident History
In the five years previous to the submission of this report, the Tennessee Eastman Division has had only one RMP reportable incident. In 1998, the Tennessee Eastman Division experienced a release of 200 gallons of anhydrous ammonia to the air and to the Holston River, which had an adverse affect on some aquatic life. There was no impact on either plant personnel or the community.
VI. Emergency Response Program
General Emergency Response Practices for All Chemicals:
1. Eastman emergency response personnel use a computerized modeling system to predict the concentration and location of any vapor cloud resulting from a hazardous vapor release. The system is able to provide real-time monitoring of the weather to enhance protection of anyone who may be impacted in the plant and in the community.
2. Response is coordinated with emergency response agencies in the community via a Field
Command Post and a Control Center.
3. Eastman's emergency response crews use a multi-tiered emergency response plan to enhance reaction time and effectiveness. For vapor releases that might impact the community, a direct line to city and county central dispatch services is available. Sirens are activated and local radio and TV stations are notified.
4. Emergency response personnel are regularly trained to comply with all applicable federal, state, and local requirements.
VII. Planned Changes to Improve Safety
Improvement plans fall into three primary areas:
1. Hazard Analysis-Continual identification of potential hazards and prompt implementation of corrective action will be done in accordance with applicable regulations and as a matter of company policy.
2. Incident Investigation-Prompt, thorough investigation of all significant incidents and near-misses will be conducted using root cause failure analysis (RCFA) techniques, and learnings will be shared across the company.
nchmarking-Through our trade association, the Chemical Manufacturers Association, and through other cooperative efforts, such as the Center for Chemical Process Safety, we will continually evaluate our safety programs and processes against the best in the world, with the goal of continual improvement.