Bakersfield Refining Co. - Area 3 - Executive Summary

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                     Risk Management Plan 
                    Equilon Enterprises LLC 
             Bakersfield Refining Company - Area 3 
                       Executive Summary 
This  is  the  Risk Management Plan (RMP) for Area 3  of  Equilon 
Enterprises LLC, Bakersfield Refining Company (BRC).  The RMP  is 
required  under  the U.S. Environmental Protection  Agency  (EPA) 
Risk   Management  Program  codified  in  40  Code   of   Federal 
Regulations, Part 68 (40 CFR 68).  Delayed coking operations  are 
conducted in Area 3.  Refining operations are primarily conducted 
in  Areas  1  and 2, which are on properties contiguous  to  each 
other  but not adjacent to Area 3.  A separate RMP submittal  has 
been prepared for Areas 1 and 2. 
The  purpose  of  the  RMP  program is to  identify  and  prevent 
potential  accidental releases of specific "regulated substances" 
that  have  the  potential to cause harm to the  public  
and  the 
environment.   "Regulated  substances"  are  hazardous  chemicals 
identified  by  EPA.   Because  BRC  has  quantities  of  various 
"regulated  substances" above a threshold amount,  this  RMP  has 
been prepared. 
The remainder of the Executive Summary is organized as follows: 
    Section 1:  Accidental  Release  Prevention  and  Emergency 
                Response Policies at BRC 
    Section 2:  Overview of Regulated Substances at BRC 
    Section 3:  Worst  Case  Release Scenarios and  Alternative 
                Release Scenarios 
    Section 4:  BRC Accidental Release Prevention Program 
    Section 5:  Five-Year Accidental Release Summary 
    Section 6:  Emergency Response Program 
Section   1.      Accidental  Release  Prevention  and  Emergency 
Response Policies at BRC 
Equipment  at  the various BRC units must be designed,  operated, 
and  maintained  in  full  compliance  with  applicable  internal 
engineering  standards,  accepted  industry  codes,  or  i 
standards.   Systems  and  procedures are  in  place  to  control 
changes  in  process technology, facilities,  and  operating  and 
maintenance procedures in order to provide for continued safe and 
reliable operations. 
All  employees  at  BRC have the responsibility  to  protect  the 
environment  and  to  ensure the safety and security  of  his/her 
fellow  workers.  Written policies and standards are in place  at 
BRC to ensure: 
    -    The safety and health of employees and other workers at  
         the site; 
    -    Protection of  the environment; 
    -    Reliable and efficient operation of the facilities; 
    -    Minimization of the risk of product or property losses;  
    -    Maintaining a positive relationship with the  
         communities adjacent to our facility. 
These  written  policies  and  standards  are  discussed  further 
elsewhere in this submittal. 
Section 2.     Overview of Regulated Substances at BRC 
Table  1 lists the covered B 
RC process units that are subject  to 
the  federal Risk Management Program, defines the appropriate RMP 
program level, and identifies the regulated substances handled in 
these units. 
                                   Table 1 
               Summary of Covered Process Units - BRC Area 3 
            Unit                 Federal   Regulated  Regulated 
                                   RMP       Toxic    Flammable 
------------------------------    -------   ---------  ---------- 
Delayed Coker Unit (Units 30      Level 3    Ammonia    Hydrogen 
and 34) Processes vacuum                   (anhydrous)  Ethylene 
residuum, or the fraction of                            1-Butene 
the crude oil that did not                             Propylene 
vaporize in the Crude or Vacuum                        Isopentane 
Units.  The vacuum residuum is                          Pentane 
heated and then thermally                
cracked in the Coke Drum.  The                           Butane 
vapors are discharged to a                              Propane 
fractionator and separated into                          Ethane 
specific petroleum liquids, and                         Methane 
the coke that remains in the 
Coke Drum is hydraulically 
removed, classified by size, de- 
watered, and then transported 
offsite to buyers for use as 
Amine Treating Unit (Units 35     Level 3     None      Ethylene 
and 36) Consists of a closed                           Propylene 
circulation system in which an                          1-Butene 
amine solution removes hydrogen                        Isopentane 
sulfide (H2S) from sour liquid                          Pentane 
and gas streams.                                       Isobutane 
Area 3 Tank Farm (Unit 72)        Level 3     None       Ethane 
Storage, interplant transfer,                           Methane 
blending, dewatering, chemical                          Pentane 
treatment, pipeline receiving                                
and shipping, rail receiving 
and shipping, and truck loading 
/ unloading of crude oils, 
intermediate products, 
additives, chemicals, and 
finished products. 
Section  3.      Worst  Case  Release Scenarios  and  Alternative 
Release Scenarios 
Offsite   consequence  analyses  are  essential  in   identifying 
potential  hazards of accidental releases.  The  results  of  the 
analyses are used to assist the Kern County Environmental  Health 
Services Department and Fire Department in its emergency response 
3.1   Worst-Case Scenarios 
BRC  conducted  offsite consequence analyses for  the  worst-case 
scenarios (WCS) using the Environmental Protection 
Agency's (EPA) 
RMP   Offsite  Consequence  Analysis  Guidelines  (OCAG).    This 
methodology  was  used because the RMP rule  set  forth  specific 
criteria  that  must  be  followed for  modeling  the  worst-case 
scenarios.   The  worst  case  scenarios  must  incorporate  very 
conservative,  simplified assumptions about  the  nature  of  the 
releases and the resulting emission rates into the air. 
The  EPA has defined the worst-case release scenario as one  that 
results in the greatest distance from the point of release  to  a 
specified  "endpoint".  As defined by the rule, the endpoint  for 
toxics   substances  is  a  specified  concentration,   and   for 
flammables  is  a  specified  overpressure  from  a  vapor  cloud 
explosion (VCE). 
The  worst-case scenario for a regulated toxic is one  where  the 
total quantity in the largest vessel or pipe is released over  10 
minutes,  resulting  in  acute  health  effects  associated  with 
airborne  exposure.   For a regulated flammable,  t 
he  worst-case 
scenario  is one where the total quantity of regulated  flammable 
in  the  largest  vessel  or  pipe is  assumed  to  vaporize  and 
instantaneously result in a vapor cloud explosion. 
A  summary of the worst-case scenarios for BRC Area 3 is provided 
in  Table 2.  As required by the RMP rule, the results are  shown 
for  one  vessel containing a toxic substance (ammonia)  and  one 
vessel  containing  flammables.   These  scenarios  produced  the 
greatest   distance  to  their  respective  toxic  and  flammable 
                            Table 2 
           Worst-Case Scenario Results - BRC Area 3 
Chemical  Area/Unit  Tank/        Amount       Radial  Endpoint 
                    Vessel      (pounds)     Distance 
--------  ---------  ------      --------     -------- --------  
Ammonia,   Area 3                 43,566               0.14 mg/l 
Anhydrous Utilities  85-Y30-T (10-min release)  
2.3    (ERPG-2) 
(tox. gas)                    
Pentane    Unit 72               2,172,000              1 psi  
(flamm.  (Tank Farm)  T901     (instantaneous   1.0    VCE over- 
mixture)                         release)              pressure 
(ERPG-2:  The maximum airborne concentration below which it is 
believed that nearly all individuals could be exposed for up to 
one hour without experiencing or developing irreversible or other 
serious health effects or symptoms that could impair an 
individual's ability to take protective action.) 
3.2   Alternative Release Scenarios 
In  addition to worst case scenarios, this RMP contains a  second 
set  of  release  scenarios  designated  as  alternative  release 
scenarios (ARS).  These scenarios are more realistic than  worst- 
case  scenarios for assessing the potential hazards posed by  BRC 
process  units and developing emergency response plans.  Although 
these  scenarios  may be unlikely to occur, they  are  ph 
possible and reasonably feasible. 
Except  for one flammable scenario, EPA OCAG procedures were  not 
used  for  modeling  the  alternative  release  scenarios.   More 
flexibility  is  provided  for  in  characterizing  releases  and 
assessing the impacts for the alternative release scenarios.  BRC 
primarily used the "PHASTProfessional" model by DNV Technica  for 
the  ARS.   PHASTProfessional is an advanced consequence modeling 
program  that examines the progress of a potential incident  from 
initial  release, through the formation of a cloud and/or  liquid 
pool, and on to final dispersion and flammable/toxic effects. 
A  summary of the alternative release scenarios for BRC Area 3 is 
provided  in  Table 3.  There is one scenario for  the  regulated 
toxic substance (ammonia) and two scenarios for flammables.   One 
flammable    release   scenario   was   evaluated    using    the 
PHASTProfessional  model.  For this scenario, a  2-inch  diameter 
hole  was  assumed  to occur in the 
bottom of a  tank  containing 
flammable  liquid.   The PHASTProfessional model  calculated  the 
liquid  spill  rate, the vaporization rate, and the distances  to 
the  1  psi  endpoint and lower flammability  limit  (LFL).   The 
second flammable ARS is a major rupture of this tank, followed by 
the  formation  of  a liquid pool and vaporization  of  flammable 
product  from the pool for a period of one hour.  The  amount  of 
flammable  vapor from the pool was calculated using  an  approach 
presented  in the EPA OCAG.  The calculated amount of  vapor  was 
inserted  in  the OCAG equation for calculating  the  1  psi  VCE 
overpressure distance for an ARS. 
                         Table 3 
     Alternative Release Scenario Results - BRC Area 3 
Chemical  Area/Unit   Tank/       Amount     Radial   Endpoint 
                     Vessel      (pounds)   Distance 
--------  ---------   ------      --------   -------- --------    
Ammonia,   Area 3    85-Y30-T      43,566             0.14 mg/l 
Anhydrous Utilities (1" Diam.     (29-min     0.43    (ERPG-2)  
(tox. gas)             Hole)      release)             
Pentane   Unit 72     T901        137,500             1 psi 
(flamm.   (Tank     (2" Diam.    (liquid)     0.14   VCE over- 
mixture)   Farm)       Hole      (60-min             pressure 
                                release)     0.058   LFL          
Pentane   Unit 72      T901       651,000             1 psi 
(flamm.   (Tank      (major       (vapor)     0.46   VCE over- 
mixture)  Farm)     rupture)      (60-min            pressure 
(LFL: Lower flammability limit) 
Section 4.     BRC Accidental Release Prevention Program 
This  section describes the general accident prevention  programs 
in  place  at  BRC.  This program is required  for  all  level  3 
covered  process u 
nits described in Section 2, Table  1,  and  is 
applied throughout the facility. 
Employees   are  responsible  for  implementing  the   prevention 
elements for his/her department as follows: 
Responsible         Prevention Element 
Process Safety      Process Safety 
Management Group    Information 
                   Process Hazards Analyses 
                   Compliance Audits 
                   Employee Participation 
                   Contractor Orientation 
                   Management of Change 
                   Incident Investigation 
Safety Group        Hot Work Procedure 
                   Emergency Response 
Training Department Operating Procedures 
                   Employee Training 
Operations          Management of Change 
Department          Pre-Startup Safety 
                   Incident Investigation 
oduction Services Mechanical Integrity 
Asset Manager       Incident Investigation 
All  records associated with the prevention elements and the Risk 
Management Program are retained for a minimum of five years. 
4.1   Process Safety Information 
BRC  maintains a variety of technical documents that are used  to 
help ensure safe operations of the process units.  Process Safety 
Information  (PSI),  which  addresses  chemical  properties   and 
associated hazards, limits for key process parameters, limits for 
specific  chemical inventories, and equipment design information, 
was compiled for each process unit. 
PSI   is  used  in  process  unit  hazard  analyses,  inspection, 
maintenance, and training activities.  This information  is  kept 
current  by  management of change and pre-startup  safety  review 
procedures, which are discussed further in this section. 
This  information,  in  combination with written  procedures  and 
trained  personnel, provides a basis for est 
ablishing  inspection 
and  maintenance  activities, as well as for evaluating  proposed 
process  and  facility changes to ensure that safety features  in 
the process are not compromised. 
4.2  Process Hazards Analysis 
BRC  conducted  process hazards analyses (PHAs)  to  ensure  that 
hazards   associated  with  process  units  are  identified   and 
controlled.   Under this program, each process is  systematically 
examined  by  a multi-disciplinary team to identify hazards  that 
could  result  in an accidental release of a regulated  substance 
and  to ensure that adequate control is in place to manage  those 
hazards.    BRC  has  used  the  hazard  and  operability   study 
methodology  as  the refinery's primary process hazards  analysis 
technique.   Some  of the revalidation has been  done  using  the 
"what  if"  and risk matrix methodologies.  Pertinent parameters, 
such  as  flow,  temperature, pressure, and  liquid  level,  were 
To  help  ensure that the process controls  
or process hazards  do 
not   deviate  significantly  from  the  original  design  safety 
features,  BRC updates and revalidates the hazard analyses  every 
five years. 
As  part of the technical studies, BRC conducted a seismic review 
of  the  refinery.  The refinery is located in an  area  that  is 
prone to earthquakes.  A walk through was conducted in 1996 by  a 
qualified  engineering company (EQE).  The objective  of  seismic 
assessments was to provide reasonable assurance that a release of 
regulated  substance having off-site consequence would not  occur 
as a result of a major earthquake.  The results and findings from 
the   seismic   review  are  documented  and  retained   in   the 
computerized tracking system. 
4.3  Operating Procedures 
BRC  has  developed and implemented written operating  procedures 
that  provide clear instructions for safely conducting activities 
involved  in  each  process.   The written  operating  procedures 
address  the  various modes of process operatio 
ns, such  as  unit 
startup,   normal  operations,  temporary  operations,  emergency 
shutdown, normal shutdown, and initial startup of a new process. 
These  procedures are used as references by experienced operators 
and for consistent training of new operators.  The procedures are 
maintained  current  and  accurate by revising  them  to  reflect 
changes made through the management of change process and through 
annual certification. 
4.4  Training 
BRC's  general policy requires operating personnel to be  trained 
in  the  safe  operation of facilities, handling process  upsets, 
emergency   response,   and  personal  safety.    Employees   who 
understand  the process and how to safely operate a  process  can 
significantly decrease the number and severity of incidents. 
Refresher  training for all operations and maintenance  employees 
in  Safety,  Health,  and  Environmental subjects  and  operating 
procedures  (as  appropriate) is provided at  varying  intervals, 
depending upon require 
4.5  Management of Change 
A Management of Change (MOC) review is required for modifications 
to  facilities  or changes to process unit operating  conditions. 
The  procedure does not apply to "replacement in kind"  which  is 
defined as replacements that satisfy the design specifications. 
The  MOC  process  is intended to assess the impact  of  proposed 
changes   on   process  safety,  the  environment,   operability, 
reliability,   and  product  quality  in  process   units.    The 
requirements for Management of Change are documented in a written 
procedure.  Management of Change information is kept for the life 
of the process unit. 
4.6  Pre-Startup Safety Reviews 
The  purpose of the Pre-Startup Safety Review is to ensure safety 
features,   procedures,   personnel,  and   the   equipment   are 
appropriately prepared for startup prior to placing the equipment 
into  service.   This review provides additional  assurance  that 
construction is in accordance with the design speci 
fications  and 
that all systems are operationally ready.  The Pre-Startup Safety 
Review   also   verifies   that   accident   prevention   program 
requirements are properly implemented. 
Pre-startup reviews are goverened by a written Pre-Startup Safety 
review procedure and covers a variety or issues, including: 
 -    construction and/or equipment are in accordance with  
      design specifications; 
 -    safety, operating, maintenance, and emergency procedures  
      are in place and are adequate; 
 -    for  new  facilities, a process hazard analysis has been 
      performed and recommendations have been resolved or 
      implemented before start-up; 
 -    modified  facilities have complied with MOC  requirements 
      including updating of the process safety information   
      (e.g.,piping instrument diagrams, operating procedures,  
 -    training  of  each  applicable  operating  employee  and 
      maintenance worker has been completed. 
4.7   Mechanical 
BRC  has  established  and  implemented  written  procedures   to 
maintain  the  ongoing integrity of process  equipment,  pressure 
vessels  and storage tanks, relief and vent systems and  devices, 
emergency shutdown systems, and controls. 
The  BRC  mechanical  integrity program  follows  recognized  and 
generally  accepted good engineering practices.  BRC maintains  a 
certification  record  that each inspection  and  test  has  been 
performed, which includes the date of the inspection, the name of 
the inspector and test, and the serial number or other identifier 
of  the equipment.  Every recommendation made by an inspector  is 
resolved   and  documented.   In  so  doing,  BRC  will   correct 
deficiencies in equipment which are outside acceptable limits (as 
defined by the process safety information) before further use, or 
in a safe and timely manner that ensures safe operation. 
4.8  Compliance Audits 
To  ensure  that  the accident prevention program is  functioning 
erly,  BRC conducts audits every three years to  assure  that 
the accident prevention program is being implemented.  The audits 
include  an  assessment of written prevention  program  elements, 
retained  records  (e.g., training records,  completed  hot  work 
permits,  etc.),  and personnel interviews  to  assess  level  of 
implementation for the prevention program. 
Compliance  reviews are performed by trained,  expert  personnel. 
Audit   results  are  communicated  to  affected  employees   and 
contractors,  and  retained  for five  years.   Action  items  or 
recommendation resulting from the various audits are  tracked  to 
completion through a computerized database. 
4.9  Incident Investigation 
The  BRC  accident  investigation program covers  four  types  of 
 -    personal injury; 
 -    environmental release; 
 -    equipment damage and loss of production caused  by  fire, 
      equipment failure or other circumstance; and 
 -    those incidents that could have rea 
sonably resulted in  a 
      catastrophic event. 
The goal of an investigation is to determine the facts associated 
with a release or near miss and to develop corrective actions  to 
prevent a recurrence of the incident or a similar incident.   The 
investigation  team  is directed by a team  leader  who  has  had 
training in incident investigation and root cause analysis. 
The   results  of  the  investigation  are  communicated  to  all 
employees.    BRC  maintains  copies  of  incident  investigation 
reports  for  a minimum of five years.  Corrective  measures  and 
action  items  resulting  from an investigation  are  tracked  to 
completion in a computerized database. 
4.10 Employee Participation 
All   BRC  employees  have  the  right  to  participate  in   the 
development  and conduct of process safety management  activities 
as  stated  in the Risk Management and Process Safety  Management 
rules.   It  is  the  policy and practice  of  BRC  to  encourage 
employee  participation  i 
n  all aspects  of  accidental  release 
prevention elements. 
All  process safety records are available for review by employees 
and the Joint Health and Safety Committees. 
4.11 Safe Work Practices 
BRC  Safe Work Practices include Hot Work, Confined Space  Entry, 
Lock  Out / Tagout, Line Entry, and various other types  of  work 
covered under a Departmental Safety Permit. 
The  BRC  Hot Work permit certifies that the various portions  of 
fire prevention and protection requirements have been implemented 
prior to beginning hot work operations.  This procedure documents 
the date(s) authorized for hot work, identifies the equipment  on 
which  hot  work  is to be done, and assures that  all  personnel 
involved in permitting are trained on this procedure. 
4.12 Contractors 
Contractors  at  BRC  are selected based  on  their  past  safety 
performance, their current safety programs, and their conformance 
to the BRC Refinery Safety Rules and Regulations Manual. 
The  BRC  Refinery Safety Rul 
es and Regulations  Manual  provides 
contractor  employees safety information, including entrance  and 
exit   procedures,  safe  work  practices  and  work   permitting 
procedures,  emergency action plans, process safety  information, 
and contractor injury/illness reporting. 
BRC  also requires annual contractor orientation training,  which 
includes  information  on the emergency  action  plan,  potential 
process  hazards, and site safety rules.  Proof  of  training  is 
provided via renewable access cards. 
Section 5.     Five-Year Accidental Release Summary 
BRC compiled a five-year accident history for accidental releases 
from  covered  processes  in  Area 3  that  resulted  in  deaths, 
injuries,  or  significant  property damage  on  site,  or  known 
offsite  deaths,  injuries,  evacuations,  sheltering  in  place, 
property damage, or environmental damage. The compilation of this 
information  satisfies  the  requirements  of  the  federal  Risk 
Management  Program  and  U.S.  Envir 
onmental  Protection  Agency 
implementing  regulations (40 Code of Federal  Regulations,  Part 
A  review  was conducted on all incident, emergency release,  and 
equipment breakdown reports from June 1994 through June  1999  to 
identify accidental releases of regulated substances from covered 
processes  that  involved the impacts described above.   No  such 
releases  from  covered  units  in Area  3  containing  regulated 
substances resulted in the impacts described above. 
Section 6.     Emergency Response Program 
BRC  has  established a comprehensive Emergency Response Program. 
The purpose of the program is to protect workers, the public, and 
the  environment  from  harm  due to Refinery  emergencies.   The 
program   includes   procedures  to  provide  for   comprehensive 
emergency response through the following: 
    -    First aid and medical treatment 
    -    Emergency  incidents, including fire, potential  fire, 
         hazardous materials releases, and natural disast 
         such as floods, winds, earthquake and electrical storms 
    -    Emergency evacuation and rescue 
    -    Notification of local, state and federal emergency  
         response agencies and the public if an incident occurs 
    -    Post-incident clean-up and decontamination 
The  Emergency  Response Program provides  for  training  of  all 
refinery staff, which varies in level of detail based on assigned 
roles  and responsibilities for staff under the Program.  Routine 
audits are routinely performed by BRC staff, corporate staff, and 
third   parties  (the  Kern  County  Fire  Department  and  BRC's 
insurance company) to assure compliance with portions or  all  of 
the Emergency Response Program. 
File Code:  1,501,000 
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