Camp Frio Cold Storage - Executive Summary

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Accidental Release Prevention and Emergency Response Policies 
The Camp Frio Cold Storage facility utilizes anhydrous ammonia as the  
refrigerant in their cold storage facility located northeast of Shafter, California.  As  
it is Camp Frio Inc.'s policy to comply with all applicable governmental  
regulations, the cold storage facility was designed and constructed in 1997 to the  
1991 Uniform Building Code/Uniform Mechanical Code.  Personnel at Camp Frio  
Cold Storage monitor the daily operation of the refrigeration system.  All service,  
maintenance, and repairs to the ammonia refrigeration system are contracted to  
a qualified licensed refrigeration contractor specializing in ammonia refrigeration.   
Utilizing an experienced qualified contractor to perform routine service,  
maintenance, and repairs ensures that the equipment is in excellent operating  
While it is Camp Frio Inc.'s objective to be a responsible citizen of the community  
in all of its busi 
ness activities, the limited staff at the cold storage facility  
precludes emergency response operations.  As such, an emergency action plan  
has been prepared for Camp Frio Cold Storage and a chain of command to  
respond to emergencies has been established. 
Description of the Stationary Source and Regulated Substances  
Camp Frio Inc. owns and operates a cold storage facility located at 31792  
Merced Avenue.  Shafter is the closest city to the Camp Frio Cold Storage  
facility.  The rural plant was constructed in 1997 utilizing all new equipment at the  
time of construction.  
Anhydrous ammonia is used as the refrigerant that provides process cooling for  
the Camp Frio Cold Storage facility.  The refrigeration system consists of a  
suction accumulator with a liquid transfer system, three compressors, an  
evaporative condenser, a high pressure receiver, and several flooded  
During normal operation, the anhydrous ammonia is distributed throughout the  
refrigeration syste 
m.  However, during major maintenance activities, the entire  
refrigeration system can be "pumped down" to evacuate the ammonia from the  
system and store it in the high pressure receiver.  The maximum quantity of  
ammonia that can be stored in the high pressure receiver is 15,390 pounds.  
For purposes of the offsite consequence analyses, the RMP regulations define  
the toxic endpoint for anhydrous ammonia as 0.14 mg/l (200 ppm).  This  
concentration has been established by the American Industrial Hygiene  
Association as the Emergency Response Planning Guideline Level 2 (ERPG-2).   
ERPG-2 is the maximum airborne concentration below which it is believed that  
nearly all individuals could be exposed for up to one hour without experiencing or  
developing irreversible or other serious health effects or symptoms which could  
impair an individual's ability to take protective action. 
Worst-Case Release Scenario and Alternative Release Scenario 
Offsite consequence analyses are used as tool 
s to assist in emergency response  
planning.  The RMP regulations require the owner or operator of a stationary  
source to analyze the offsite impacts due to an accidental release of a regulated  
substance.  The offsite consequence analysis for a Program 3 process must  
analyze the worst-case release scenario and an alternative release scenario.   
Since the ammonia-based refrigeration system at Camp Frio Cold Storage is  
considered a Program 3 process, both release scenarios were evaluated in the  
offsite consequence analysis. 
The offsite consequence analysis must include an estimate of the residential  
population within an area potentially affected by the accidental release scenario.   
This area is defined as a circle with a radius equivalent to the distance the  
release would travel with concentrations at or above the toxic endpoint.  The  
circle also defines the area in which potential environmental receptors must be  
The worst case release is defined by the U.S. EPA a 
s the total release of the  
contents of the single largest vessel or pipe within 10 minutes.  For liquefied  
gases stored under pressure, the entire contents of the vessel or pipe are  
assumed to be released as a vapor.  A total vapor release is highly unlikely.   
However, this standardized worst case scenario was developed for emergency  
response agencies to use for planning purposes. 
An alternative release scenario is a release that is more likely to occur than the  
worst-case release scenario.  For Camp Frio Cold Storage, the alternative  
release scenario was selected based on the results of the Process Hazard  
Analysis (PHA) for the ammonia-based refrigeration system. A credible release  
event with a high discharge rate would potentially have the greatest offsite  
impact.  A leak from a valve packing was identified in the PHAs as having a  
medium probability of occurrence with a discharge rate high enough to cause an  
offsite impact, and therefore, was chosen as the alternative re 
lease scenario. 
Camp Frio Cold Storage has analyzed the offsite consequences of the worst- 
case and alternative release scenarios.  For the worst-case release scenario, the  
release of 15,390 lbs. of ammonia over a 10 minute period outside of the engine  
room, the plume would travel 1.5 miles at concentrations at or above the  
endpoint.  Using 1990 Census data, the population potentially affected within the  
worst-case release scenario circle is 75 persons.  Due to the rural location of this  
facility, the population potentially affected by this worst case release is  
substantially overstated by the 1990 Census data.  There were no environmental  
receptors within the worst case release scenario circle. 
In the alternative release scenario, a packing leak from an isolation valve located  
outdoors was modeled as a release of liquefied ammonia stored under pressure.   
For a release of 22 lb/min of anhydrous ammonia, the model calculated that the  
plume would travel less than 0.1 mile at  
concentrations at or above the endpoint.   
No residences are located within the 0.1 mile area around the Camp Frio Cold  
Storage facility.  As such, there would be no population impacts from the  
alternative release scenario.  There were also no sensitive receptors or  
environmental receptors within the alternative release scenario circle.  
General Accidental Release Prevention Program and Chemical-Specific  
Prevention Steps 
A PSM program, which meets the requirements of the general accidental release  
prevention program, is being implemented by Camp Frio Cold Storage to  
address the anhydrous ammonia system.  The PSM program includes the  
following chemical-specific prevention steps: 
    Written process safety information, including information pertaining to the  
hazards of ammonia, the technology of the process, and the equipment in  
the process is being compiled. 
    Process Hazard Analyses (PHA) will be updated and revalidated at least  
every five years. 
    Written operating proced 
ures will be reviewed at least annually. 
    Safe work practices, such as lockout/tagout, confined space entry,  
opening process equipment or piping, and control over entrance into the  
facility are implemented as needed. 
    If employees are involved in operating the ammonia system, they will  
receive initial training and refresher training at least every three years. 
    Written mechanical integrity procedures have been established and  
    A Management of Change (MOC) program has been developed and  
implemented to address all proposed changes to the ammonia system. 
    Pre-startup safety reviews will be performed when a modification is made  
to the ammonia system that is significant enough to require a change in  
the process safety information. 
    Audits will be conducted at least every three years to evaluate compliance  
with the CalARP regulations. 
    Incident investigation procedures have been established. 
    A written plan of action regarding the implementation of employ 
participation has been developed and implemented. 
    Hot work permits will be issued for all hot work operations conducted on or  
near the ammonia system, as needed. 
    A Contractor Safety Policy has been developed and implemented. 
To ensure that the general accidental release prevention program and the  
chemical-specific prevention steps are implemented, Camp Frio Cold Storage  
has assigned overall responsibility for the RMP elements to the Cold Storage  
Manager.  The Cold Storage Manager has the overall responsibility for the  
development, implementation, and integration of the RMP elements. 
Five-Year Accident History 
Camp Frio Cold Storage has not had any accidental releases from the ammonia- 
based refrigeration system that have resulted in deaths, injuries, or significant  
property damage on site, or known offsite deaths, injuries, evacuations,  
sheltering in place, property damage, or environmental damage in the last five  
Emergency Response Program 
Camp Frio Cold  
Storage has established an emergency action plan and a chain  
of command to respond to emergencies and to notify emergency responders  
when there is a need for a response.  However, an emergency response  
program does not need to be developed for the facility since Camp Frio Cold  
Storage employees will not respond to accidental releases of ammonia, the  
facility is included in the community emergency response plan, and appropriate  
mechanisms are in place to notify emergency responders. 
Planned Changes To Improve Safety 
Camp Frio Cold Storage relies on the expertise of qualified ammonia refrigeration  
contractors to regularly evaluate the need for any changes to the refrigeration  
equipment and to improve safety.  Currently, Camp Frio Cold Storage does not  
have any changes planned to improve safety associated with the ammonia  
refrigeration system.
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