Bakersfield Refining Co. - Areas 1 & 2 - Executive Summary

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                     Risk Management Plan 
                    Equilon Enterprises LLC 
         Bakersfield Refining Company - Areas 1 and 2 
                       Executive Summary 
This  is  the Risk Management Plan (RMP) for Areas  1  and  2  of 
Equilon Enterprises LLC, Bakersfield Refining Company (BRC).  The 
RMP  is  required under the U.S. Environmental Protection  Agency 
(EPA)  Risk  Management Program codified in 40  Code  of  Federal 
Regulations,  Part  68  (40  CFR 68).   Refining  operations  are 
primarily  conducted in Areas 1 and 2, which  are  on  contiguous 
properties.  BRC also has delayed coking operations  in  Area  3, 
which is not adjacent to Areas 1 and 2.  A separate RMP submittal 
has been prepared for Area 3. 
The  purpose  of  the  RMP  program is to  identify  and  prevent 
potential  accidental releases of specific "regulated substances" 
that  have  the  potential to cause harm to the  publ 
ic  and  the 
environment.   "Regulated  substances"  are  hazardous  chemicals 
identified  by  EPA.   Because  BRC  has  quantities  of  various 
"regulated  substances" above a threshold amount,  this  RMP  has 
been prepared. 
The remainder of the Executive Summary is organized as follows: 
    Section  1:  Accidental  Release  Prevention  and  Emergency 
          Response Policies at BRC 
    Section 2: Overview of Regulated Substances at BRC 
    Section  3:  Worst  Case  Release Scenarios and  Alternative 
          Release Scenarios 
    Section 4: BRC Accidental Release Prevention Program 
    Section 5: Five-Year Accidental Release Summary 
    Section 6: Emergency Response Program 
Section   1:     Accidental  Release  Prevention  and   Emergency 
Response Policies at BRC 
Equipment  at  the various BRC units must be designed,  operated, 
and  maintained  in  full  compliance  with  applicable  internal 
engineering  standards,  accepted  industry  codes,  or  industry 
ndards.   Systems  and  procedures are  in  place  to  control 
changes  in process technology, facilities, operating procedures, 
and  maintenance  procedures, in order to provide  for  continued 
safe and reliable operations. 
All  employees  at  BRC have the responsibility  to  protect  the 
environment  and  to  ensure the safety and security  of  his/her 
fellow  workers.  Written policies and standards are in place  at 
BRC to ensure: 
    7    The safety and health of employees and other workers at the 
    7    Protection of  the environment; 
    7    Reliable and efficient operation of the facilities; 
    7    Minimization of the risk of product or property losses; and 
    7    Maintaining a positive relationship with the communities 
      adjacent to our facility. 
These  written  policies  and  standards  are  discussed  further 
elsewhere in this submittal. 
Section 2:     Overview of Regulated Substances at BRC 
Table  1 lists the covered BRC process units that 
are subject  to 
the  federal Risk Management Program, defines the appropriate RMP 
program level, and identifies the regulated substances handled in 
these units. 
                            Table 1 
     Summary of Covered Process Units - BRC Areas 1 and 2 
            Unit                 Federal   Regulated  Regulated 
                                   RMP       Toxic    Flammable 
Crude Vacuum Unit (Units 10,      Level 3     None       Ethane 
11, and 12) Physically                                  Propane 
separates crude oil into                               Isobutane 
intermediate and final products                          Butane 
by boiling the crude oil and                           Isopentane 
condensing the vapors (i.e.,                            Pentane 
Hydrogen Generation Unit          Level 3     None      Methane 
(Unit 20) Manufactures high 
purity hydrogen for consumption 
the hydrotreaters, the 
hydrocracker, and the mild 
Hydrocracking Unit (Unit 21)      Level 3     None      Hydrogen 
High temperature and catalyst                           Methane 
are used to break or crack                               Ethane 
large hydrocarbon molecules                             Propane 
such as diesel from the Crude                            Butane 
Vacuum Unit, and gas oil and                            Pentane 
naphtha from the Delayed Coking 
Unit in Area 3. 
Catalytic Reforming Unit          Level 3     None       Ethane 
(Unit 22)                                               Propane 
Provides a high octane blending                        Isobutane 
component necessary to produce                           Butane 
De-Isobutanizer Unit (Unit 24)    Level 3     None       Ethane 
Separates and purifies                                  Propane 
liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)                          Isobutane 
streams from the CVU, the               
reformers, and the                                     Isopentane 
hydrocracker.  (Also known as                           Pentane 
Saturated Gas Plant.) 
Amine Treating Unit (Unit 25)     Level 3     None      Methane 
Consists of a closed                                     Ethane 
circulation system in which an                          Propane 
amine solution removes hydrogen                          Butane 
sulfide (H2S) from sour liquid                         Isopentane 
and gas streams.                                        Pentane 
Hydrotreating (Unit 26)           Level 3     None      Hydrogen 
Removes nitrogen and sulfur                             Methane 
contaminants from feed naphtha.                          Ethane 
CD Hydro Unit (Unit 27)           Level 3     None      Propane 
Converts a portion of benzene                          Isobutane 
in gasoline to cyclohexane to                            Butane 
achieve maximum benzene                                Isopentane 
concentration specifications.                           Pentane 
Area 1 Tank Farm & Cooling        Level 3   Chlorine    Methane 
Tower (Unit 70)                                          Ethane 
Storage, interplant transfer,                            Butane 
blending, dewatering, chemical                         Isopentane 
treatment, pipeline receiving                           Pentane 
and shipping, rail receiving 
and shipping, and truck loading 
/ unloading of crude oils, 
intermediate products, 
additives, chemicals, and 
finished products.  Cooling 
towers are used to cool process 
Area 2 Tank Farm & Cooling        Level 3    Ammonia    Methane 
s (Unit 71)                           (Anhydrous    Ethane 
Storage, interplant transfer,                   )       Propane 
blending, dewatering, chemical              Chlorine   Propylene 
treatment, pipeline receiving                          Isobutane 
and shipping, rail receiving                             Butane 
and shipping, and truck loading                        Isopentane 
/ unloading of crude oils,                              Pentane 
intermediate products, 
additives, chemicals, and 
finished products.  Cooling 
towers are used to cool process 
Area 2 Warehouse                  Level 3   Chlorine      None 
Stores chemicals, additives, 
and gases until they are used 
within the process units at the 
Section  3:  Worst Case Release Scenarios and Alternative Release 
Offsite   consequence  analyses  are  essential  in   identifying 
potential  hazards of accidental releases.  The  results  of  the 
analyses are used to assist the Kern County Environmental   
Services Department and Fire Department in its emergency response 
3.1  Worst-Case Scenarios 
BRC  conducted  offsite consequence analyses for  the  worst-case 
scenarios (WCS) using the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) 
RMP   Offsite  Consequence  Analysis  Guidelines  (OCAG).    This 
methodology  was  used because the RMP rule  set  forth  specific 
criteria  that  must  be  followed for  modeling  the  worst-case 
scenarios.   The  worst  case  scenarios  must  incorporate  very 
conservative,  simplified assumptions about  the  nature  of  the 
releases and the resulting emission rates into the air. 
The  EPA has defined the worst-case release scenario as one  that 
results in the greatest distance from the point of release  to  a 
specified  "endpoint".  As defined by the rule, the endpoint  for 
toxics   substances  is  a  specified  concentration,   and   for 
flammables  is  a  specified  overpressure  from  a  vapor  cloud 
explosion (VCE). 
The  worst-case scena 
rio for a regulated toxic is one  where  the 
total quantity in the largest vessel or pipe is released over  10 
minutes,  resulting  in  acute  health  effects  associated  with 
airborne  exposure.   For a regulated flammable,  the  worst-case 
scenario  is one where the total quantity of regulated  flammable 
in  the  largest  vessel  or  pipe is  assumed  to  vaporize  and 
instantaneously result in a vapor cloud explosion. 
A  summary of the worst-case scenarios for BRC Areas 1 and  2  is 
provided  in  Table 2.  As required by the RMP rule, the  results 
are  shown  for one vessel containing a toxic substance (ammonia) 
and  one  vessel containing flammables.  These scenarios produced 
the  greatest  distance to their respective toxic  and  flammable 
                         Table 2 
     Worst-Case Scenario Results - BRC Areas 1 and 2 
Chemical   Area /  Tank/Vess     Amount     Radial Endpoint 
           Unit       el       (pounds)    Distan 
Ammonia,   Area 2                                 0.14 mg/l 
Anhydrous   Tank     13C01       289,500     6.1  (ERPG-2)a 
(toxic      Farm                 (10-min 
gas)                            release) 
Butane     Area 2                                 1 psi VCE 
(flammabl   Tank     80M01     18,244,000    2.1  overpress 
e gas)      Farm             (instantaneous          ure 
aERPG-2:  The maximum airborne concentration below which it 
is believed that nearly all individuals could be exposed for 
up to one hour without experiencing or developing 
irreversible or other serious health effects or symptoms 
that could impair an individual's ability to take protective 
3.2  Alternative Release Scenarios 
In  addition to worst case scenarios, this RMP contains a  second 
set  of  release  scenarios  de 
signated  as  alternative  release 
scenarios (ARS).  These scenarios are more realistic than  worst- 
case  scenarios for assessing the potential hazards posed by  BRC 
process  units and developing emergency response plans.  Although 
these  scenarios  may be unlikely to occur, they  are  physically 
possible and reasonably feasible. 
EPA  OCAG  procedures were not used for modeling the  alternative 
release   scenarios.   More  flexibility  is  provided   for   in 
characterizing  releases  and  assessing  the  impacts  for   the 
alternative release scenarios.  BRC used the "PHAST Professional" 
model  by  DNV  Technica  for the ARS.  PHASTProfessional  is  an 
advanced  consequence modeling program that examines the progress 
of  a  potential  incident  from  initial  release,  through  the 
formation  of  a  cloud  and/or liquid  pool,  and  on  to  final 
dispersion and flammable/toxic effects. 
A  summary of the alternative release scenarios for BRC  Areas  1 
and  2  is  provided in Table 3 
.  There is one scenario for  each 
toxic substance and one for flammables.  The ammonia release  and 
the  flammable  release  were assumed  to  be  stopped  after  60 
minutes,  though a longer duration would not change  the  results 
                         Table 3 
 Alternative Release Scenario Results- BRC Areas 1 and 2 
Chemica  Area /    Tank/Vessel     Amount    RadialEndpoint 
  l      Unit                    (pounds)   Distan 
Ammonia  Area 2       13C01        89,280            0.14 
,       Tank Farm   (1" Diam.     (60-min     0.59   mg/l 
Anhydro               Hole)       release)         (ERPG-2) 
Chlorin  Area 1     Cylinder       2,000            0.0087 
e       Tank Farm (0.25" Diam.    (17-min     0.50   mg/l 
(toxic                Hole)       release)         (ERPG-2) 
Butane   Area 2       80M01       153,780            1 psi 
(flamma Tank Farm   (2" Diam.     (60-min     0.16    VCE 
ble                   Hole)       release)         overpres 
gas)                                         0.065   LFLa 
aLower flammability limit 
Section 4.     BRC Accidental Release Prevention Program 
This  section describes the general accident prevention  programs 
in  place  at  BRC.  This program is required  for  all  level  3 
covered  process units described in Section 2, Table  1,  and  is 
applied throughout the facility. 
Employees   are  responsible  for  implementing  the   prevention 
elements for his/her department as follows: 
    Responsible          Prevention Element 
    Process Safety       Process Safety 
    Management Group     Information 
                         Process Hazards Analyses 
                         Compliance Audits 
Employee Participation 
                         Contractor Orientation 
                         Management of Change 
                         Incident Investigation 
    Safety Group         Hot Work Procedure 
                         Emergency Response 
    Training Department  Operating Procedures 
                         Employee Training 
    Operations           Management of Change 
    Department           Pre-Startup Safety 
                         Incident Investigation 
    Production Services  Mechanical Integrity 
    Asset Manager        Incident Investigation 
All  records associated with the prevention elements and the Risk 
Management Program are retained for a minimum of five years. 
4.1   Process Safety Information 
BRC  maintains a variety of technical 
documents that are used  to 
help ensure safe operations of the process units.  Process Safety 
Information  (PSI),  which  addresses  chemical  properties   and 
associated hazards, limits for key process parameters, limits for 
specific  chemical inventories, and equipment design information, 
was compiled for each process unit. 
PSI   is  used  in  process  unit  hazard  analyses,  inspection, 
maintenance, and training activities.  This information  is  kept 
current  by  management of change and pre-startup  safety  review 
procedures, which are discussed further in this section. 
This  information,  in  combination with written  procedures  and 
trained  personnel, provides a basis for establishing  inspection 
and  maintenance  activities, as well as for evaluating  proposed 
process  and  facility changes to ensure that safety features  in 
the process are not compromised. 
4.2   Process Hazards Analysis 
BRC  conducted  process hazards analyses (PHAs)  to  ensure  that 
hazards   associa 
ted  with  process  units  are  identified   and 
controlled.   Under this program, each process is  systematically 
examined  by  a multi-disciplinary team to identify hazards  that 
could  result  in an accidental release of a regulated  substance 
and  to ensure that adequate control is in place to manage  those 
hazards.    BRC  has  used  the  hazard  and  operability   study 
methodology  as  the refinery's primary process hazards  analysis 
technique.   Some  of the revalidation has been  done  using  the 
"what  if"  and risk matrix methodologies.  Pertinent parameters, 
such  as  flow,  temperature, pressure, and  liquid  level,  were 
To  help  ensure that the process controls or process hazards  do 
not   deviate  significantly  from  the  original  design  safety 
features,  BRC updates and revalidates the hazard analyses  every 
five years. 
As  part of the technical studies, BRC conducted a seismic review 
of  the  refinery.  The refinery is located in an  area  that  is 
ne to earthquakes.  A walk through was conducted in 1996 by  a 
qualified  engineering company (EQE).  The objective  of  seismic 
assessments was to provide reasonable assurance that a release of 
regulated  substance having off-site consequence would not  occur 
as a result of a major earthquake.  The results and findings from 
the   seismic   review  are  documented  and  retained   in   the 
computerized tracking system. 
4.3   Operating Procedures 
BRC  has  developed and implemented written operating  procedures 
that  provide clear instructions for safely conducting activities 
involved  in  each  process.   The written  operating  procedures 
address  the  various modes of process operations, such  as  unit 
startup,   normal  operations,  temporary  operations,  emergency 
shutdown, normal shutdown, and initial startup of a new process. 
These  procedures are used as references by experienced operators 
and for consistent training of new operators.  The procedures are 
maintained  current 
 and  accurate by revising  them  to  reflect 
changes made through the management of change process and through 
annual certification. 
4.4   Training 
BRC's  general policy requires operating personnel to be  trained 
in  the  safe  operation of facilities, handling process  upsets, 
emergency   response,   and  personal  safety.    Employees   who 
understand  the process and how to safely operate a  process  can 
significantly decrease the number and severity of incidents. 
Refresher  training for all operations and maintenance  employees 
in  Safety,  Health,  and  Environmental subjects  and  operating 
procedures  (as  appropriate) is provided at  varying  intervals, 
depending upon requirements. 
4.5   Management of Change 
A Management of Change (MOC) review is required for modifications 
to  facilities  or changes to process unit operating  conditions. 
The  procedure does not apply to "replacement in kind"  which  is 
defined as replacements that satisfy the design specifications. 

he  MOC  process  is intended to assess the impact  of  proposed 
changes   on   process  safety,  the  environment,   operability, 
reliability,   and  product  quality  in  process   units.    The 
requirements for Management of Change are documented in a written 
procedure.  Management of Change information is kept for the life 
of the process unit. 
4.6   Pre-Startup Safety Reviews 
The  purpose of the Pre-Startup Safety Review is to ensure safety 
features,   procedures,   personnel,  and   the   equipment   are 
appropriately prepared for startup prior to placing the equipment 
into  service.   This review provides additional  assurance  that 
construction is in accordance with the design specifications  and 
that all systems are operationally ready.  The Pre-Startup Safety 
Review   also   verifies   that   accident   prevention   program 
requirements are properly implemented. 
Pre-startup reviews are goverened by a written Pre-Startup Safety 
review procedure and covers a variety or issue 
s, including: 
 7    construction and/or equipment are in accordance with design 
 7    safety, operating, maintenance, and emergency procedures are 
    in place and are adequate; 
 7     for  new  facilities, a process hazard analysis has  been 
    performed and recommendations have been resolved or implemented 
    before start-up; 
 7     modified  facilities have complied with MOC  requirements 
    including updating of the process safety information  (e.g., 
    piping instrument diagrams, operating procedures, etc.); 
 7      training  of  each  applicable  operating  employee  and 
    maintenance worker has been completed. 
4.7   Mechanical Integrity 
BRC  has  established  and  implemented  written  procedures   to 
maintain  the  ongoing integrity of process  equipment,  pressure 
vessels  and storage tanks, relief and vent systems and  devices, 
emergency shutdown systems, and controls. 
The  BRC  mechanical  integrity program  follows  recognized  and 
generally  accepted good engineering practices.  BRC maintains  a 
certification  record  that each inspection  and  test  has  been 
performed, which includes the date of the inspection, the name of 
the inspector and test, and the serial number or other identifier 
of  the equipment.  Every recommendation made by an inspector  is 
resolved   and  documented.   In  so  doing,  BRC  will   correct 
deficiencies in equipment which are outside acceptable limits (as 
defined by the process safety information) before further use, or 
in a safe and timely manner that ensures safe operation. 
4.8   Compliance Audits 
To  ensure  that  the accident prevention program is  functioning 
properly,  BRC conducts audits every three years to  assure  that 
the accident prevention program is being implemented.  The audits 
include  an  assessment of written prevention  program  elements, 
retained  records  (e.g., training records,  completed  hot  work 
permits,  etc.),  and personnel interviews  to  assess  l 
evel  of 
implementation for the prevention program. 
Compliance  reviews are performed by trained,  expert  personnel. 
Audit   results  are  communicated  to  affected  employees   and 
contractors,  and  retained  for five  years.   Action  items  or 
recommendation resulting from the various audits are  tracked  to 
completion through a computerized database. 
4.9   Incident Investigation 
The  BRC  accident  investigation program covers  four  types  of 
 "    personal injury; 
 "    environmental release; 
 "     equipment damage and loss of production caused  by  fire, 
    equipment failure or other circumstance; and 
 "     those incidents that could have reasonably resulted in  a 
    catastrophic event. 
The goal of an investigation is to determine the facts associated 
with a release or near miss and to develop corrective actions  to 
prevent a recurrence of the incident or a similar incident.   The 
investigation  team  is directed by a team  leader  who  has  had 
ining in incident investigation and root cause analysis. 
The   results  of  the  investigation  are  communicated  to  all 
employees.    BRC  maintains  copies  of  incident  investigation 
reports  for  a minimum of five years.  Corrective  measures  and 
action  items  resulting  from an investigation  are  tracked  to 
completion in a computerized database. 
4.10 Employee Participation 
All   BRC  employees  have  the  right  to  participate  in   the 
development  and conduct of process safety management  activities 
as  stated  in the Risk Management and Process Safety  Management 
rules.   It  is  the  policy and practice  of  BRC  to  encourage 
employee  participation  in  all aspects  of  accidental  release 
prevention elements. 
All  process safety records are available for review by employees 
and the Joint Health and Safety Committees. 
4.11 Safe Work Practices 
BRC  Safe Work Practices include Hot Work, Confined Space  Entry, 
Lock  Out / Tagout, Line Entry, and various other ty 
pes  of  work 
covered under a Departmental Safety Permit. 
The  BRC  Hot Work permit certifies that the various portions  of 
fire prevention and protection requirements have been implemented 
prior to beginning hot work operations.  This procedure documents 
the date(s) authorized for hot work, identifies the equipment  on 
which  hot  work  is to be done, and assures that  all  personnel 
involved in permitting are trained on this procedure. 
4.12 Contractors 
Contractors  at  BRC  are selected based  on  their  past  safety 
performance, their current safety programs, and their conformance 
to the BRC Refinery Safety Rules and Regulations Manual. 
The  BRC  Refinery Safety Rules and Regulations  Manual  provides 
contractor  employees safety information, including entrance  and 
exit   procedures,  safe  work  practices  and  work   permitting 
procedures,  emergency action plans, process safety  information, 
and contractor injury/illness reporting. 
BRC  also requires annual contractor orie 
ntation training,  which 
includes  information  on the emergency  action  plan,  potential 
process  hazards, and site safety rules.  Proof  of  training  is 
provided via renewable access cards. 
Section 5.     Five-Year Accidental Release Summary 
BRC compiled a five-year accident history for accidental releases 
from  covered processes in Areas 1 and 2 that resulted in deaths, 
injuries,  or  significant  property damage  on  site,  or  known 
offsite  deaths,  injuries,  evacuations,  sheltering  in  place, 
property damage or environmental damage.  The compilation of this 
information  satisfies  the  requirements  of  the  federal  Risk 
Management  Program  and  U.S.  Environmental  Protection  Agency 
implementing  regulations (40 Code of Federal  Regulations,  Part 
The  five-year  accident history provides an explanation  of  the 
factors that caused the accident, the on- and off-site impacts of 
the  accident,  and  the  changes made by  BRC  to  minimize  the 
likelihood that the 
se accidents will occur again. 
BRC  reviewed  all  incident, emergency  release,  and  equipment 
breakdown  reports from June 1994 through June 1999  to  identify 
accidental   releases  of  regulated  substances   from   covered 
processes  that  involved  the  impacts  described  above.    One 
incident  involving a regulated substance from a covered  process 
was  identified:  a  fire  involving a regulated  substance  that 
resulted in significant on-site property damage.  No injuries  or 
off-site  impacts  resulted  from the  incident,  however.   Data 
regarding  this  accident and a summary of the resulting  changes 
made  to  minimize  the likelihood that the accident  will  occur 
again  are  described  in  the Five-Year  Accident  History  data 
elements of the Risk Management Plan. 
Section 6.     Emergency Response Program 
BRC  has  established a comprehensive Emergency Response Program. 
The purpose of the program is to protect workers, the public, and 
the  environment  from  har 
m  due to Refinery  emergencies.   The 
program   includes   procedures  to  provide  for   comprehensive 
emergency response through the following: 
    7    First aid and medical treatment 
    7     Emergency  incidents, including fire, potential  fire, 
      hazardous materials releases, and natural disasters such as 
      floods, winds, earthquake and electrical storms 
    7    Emergency evacuation and rescue 
    7    Notification of local, state and federal emergency response 
      agencies and the public if an incident occurs 
    7    Post-incident clean-up and decontamination 
The  Emergency  Response Program provides  for  training  of  all 
refinery staff, which varies in level of detail based on assigned 
roles  and responsibilities for staff under the Program.  Routine 
audits are routinely performed by BRC staff, corporate staff, and 
third   parties  (the  Kern  County  Fire  Department  and  BRC's 
insurance company) to assure compliance with portions or  all  of 
the Eme 
rgency Response Program. 
File Code:  1,501,000 
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