SSE MFG., INC. - TONY'S PIZZA SERVICE - Executive Summary

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Schwan's has historically placed a high priority on chemical  
safety. The corporate environmental compliance manager has been  
assigned overall responsibility for chemical safety in general and  
for ammonia refrigeration safety in particular since 1991.  
Schwan's maintains 3 - shift coverage of emergency responders  
trained to the 24-hour technician level at all facilities with  
ammonia refrigeration systems covered by this rule. 
The Salina, KS facility manufactures frozen pizza. Anhydrous  
ammonia is used in the refrigeration system at this facility.  
Ammonia is the most efficient and environmentally compatible  
refrigerant available. Although it is toxic at high concentration  
and is an irritating gas, it is not a cumulative metabolic poison,  
does not cause cancer or other dread diseases and does not cause  
lasting environmental damage. The refrigeration system at this  
facility contains about 112,000 pounds of ammonia. 
The Salina, KS facility uses liquid propane as a back-up fue 
l for  
natural gas-fired ovens. The inventory of 100,000 pounds of  
propane is normally in storage and is used only during periods of  
extremely cold weather. 
Schwan's calculates ammonia worst case release scenarios using the  
Model RMP for Ammonia Refrigeration, May 1996. All Schwan's  
manufacturing facilities are located in areas that meet the  
definition of "urban". Schwan's has chosen to calculate worst case  
release poundage for the largest high-pressure receiver in the  
system, filled to full calculated hydraulic capacity. Reduced  
volume for administrative controls was not used, since the  
described scenario would probably occur only as a result of a  
catastrophic vessel rupture caused by a total filling of the  
vessel, closure of all vessel block valves, failure of all  
pressure relief valves, with a simultaneous increase in liquid  
temperature sufficient to overpressure the vessel to the point of  
It is the professional judgement of Schwans Environmental Health  
d Safety Department that a release rate of 400 lb./min. should  
be used as an alternate case scenario in lieu of the 100 lb./min.  
rate suggested in the Model RMP. 
The "urban" site condition will be used. 
Based on the above, the worst-case ammonia release scenario for  
the Salina, KS facility will be 34,000 pounds released over a 10- 
minute period. The alternate case will be a release rate of 400  
pounds per minute. Both scenarios have off-site impacts. 
For propane, worst case and alternate case scenarios were  
calculated using RMP Offsite Consequence Analysis Guidance, May  
1996, for flammable substances. 
Worst case assumes that the propane tank is 80% full. A vapor  
cloud explosion occurs involving 100% of the material in the tank.  
The consequence distance is to an overpressure of 1.0 psi. 
Alternate case assumes that the propane tank is 80% full and that  
the tank contents are released over a period of 10 minutes at a  
constant rate. The consequence distance is to Lower Flammab 
Limit (LFL) of 35 mg./L., "D" atmospheric stability and wind speed  
of 3.0 m./sec. In order to achieve a more conservative result,  
rural conditions are used.  
The ammonia refrigeration system is covered by the OSHA Process  
Safety Management (PSM) rule, 29 CFR 1910.119. 
Although the Salina, KS facility has experienced 4 releases which  
were reported under EPCRA Section 304 in the five years beginning  
21 June 1994, none was more than 500 pounds and none resulted in  
onsite or offsite casualties or off-site evacuations. 
The Salina, KS facility maintains a 3-shift emergency response  
team, trained at the 24-hour technician level. The team numbers 24  
members. The training is conducted by the Corporate Environmental  
Compliance Manager. The training is designed with a heavy emphasis  
on ammonia safety, mechanical isolation, personal protective  
equipment up to use of Level `A' suits and interaction with an  
incident command system (ICS). Copies of emergency plans are filed  
h the Fire Department and annual facility walkthroughs are  
conducted with Fire officers. Preplanned command posts and staging  
areas have been designated and Incident Command transfer and  
liaison functions have been established. A post-incident  
debriefing is conducted after each incident. 
Since a continuous improvement philosophy is deeply imbedded in  
the Schwan's corporate culture, improvements in system safety are  
implemented as a result of employee-based Total Quality Management  
(TQM) teams, a designated PSM team and as a result of system  
engineering modifications and extensions. Post incident  
debriefings and incident investigations are used to identify  
additional improvements to system safety.
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