Calumet Gas Plant - Executive Summary
Enogex Calumet Gas Plant |
ACCIDENTAL RELEASE PREVENTION AND RESPONSE POLICIES
The Calumet gas plant has a long-standing commitment to worker and public safety. This commitment is demonstrated by the resources invested in accident protection, accidental release prevention, and mitigation, such as training personnel and considering safety in the design, installation, operation, and maintenance of our processes. Enogex's policy is to implement reasonable controls to prevent foreseeable releases of regulated substances. However, if a release does occur, gas plant trained personnel will respond to control and contain the release.
DESCRIPTION OF THE CALUMET GAS PLANT AND REGULATED SUBSTANCES
The Calumet gas plant, located approximately 7 miles northwest of Calumet in Canadian County, Oklahoma, operates a refrigerated lean oil plant to extract liquid petroleum products from raw natural gas. The plant products include pipeline quality natural gas (primarily
methane) and natural gas liquids comprised of ethane, propane, butane, pentane, and heavier hydrocarbons, some of which are regulated flammable substances. The process to represent all regulated flammable substances at the Calumet gas plant which contain above the threshold quantity is as follows:
7 'BG' Storage Tank comprised of C3+ mixture.
In order to establish the safest possible environment for our employees and the public, there are no regulated toxic substances above the threshold quantity present at the Calumet gas plant.
OFFSITE CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS RESULTS
The Worst-Case Scenario (WCS) associated with a release of a regulated flammable substance in this program level 3 gas plant is a Vapor Cloud Explosion (VCE) involving the full inventory of the largest storage tank containing the C3+. A written procedure is in place to limit the storage inventory to 292,350 lbs. (80% of the maximum tank capacity); therefore, the reduced inventory is assumed to release and igni
te, resulting in a VCE. The maximum distance to the 1-psi endpoint for this WCS is 0.53 miles or 2798 feet. Although we have numerous controls to prevent such releases and to manage their consequences, no credit for passive mitigation measures was taken into account in evaluating this WCS.
The Alternative Release Scenario (ARS) for flammable substances at the Calumet gas plant is a VCE resulting from a 15,000 lbs. 60-minute release of C3+ mixture, resulting from a seal failure at the product pumps. The release is expected to be isolated by an operator within sixty minutes (active mitigation). The maximum distance to the 1-psi overpressure endpoint for this event is 0.20 miles or 1056 feet. This event was selected as being a practical scenario for use in emergency planning and response.
GENERAL ACCIDENTAL RELEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM
The following is a summary of the accidental release prevention program in place at the Calumet gas plant. Because the processes at the gas
plant which are regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Risk Management Program (RMP) rule are also subject to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA's) Process Safety Management (PSM) regulation. This summary addresses each of the OSHA PSM elements and describes the management system in place to implement the accidental release prevention program.
The Calumet gas plant encourages employees to participate in all facets of process safety management and accident prevention. Examples of employee participation range from updating and compiling technical documents and chemical information to participating as a member of a process hazard analysis (PHA) team. Employees have access to all information created as part of the gas plant accident prevention program. Specific ways that employees can be involved in the accident prevention program are documented in an employee participation plan that is maintained at the gas plant a
nd addresses each accident prevention program element. In addition, the gas plant has a number of initiatives under way that address process safety and employee safety issues. These initiatives include forming teams to promote both process and personal safety. The teams typically have members from various areas of the plant, including operations, maintenance, engineering, and plant management.
Process Safety Information
The Calumet gas plant keeps a variety of technical documents that are used to help maintain safe operation of the processes. These documents address chemical properties and associated hazards, limits for key process parameters and specific chemical inventories, and equipment design basis/configuration information. Specific departments within the gas plant are assigned responsibility for maintaining up-to-date process safety information. A table summarizing the reference documents and their location is readily available as part of the written employee particip
ation plan to help employees locate any necessary process safety information.
Chemical-specific information, including exposure hazards and emergency response/ exposure treatment considerations, is provided in material safety data sheets (MSDSs). This information is supplemented by documents that specifically address known corrosion concerns and any known hazards associated with the inadvertent mixing of chemicals. For specific process areas, the gas plant has documented safety-related limits for specific process parameters (e.g., temperature, level, composition) in our Operating Procedures and/or Process Safety Information. The gas plant ensures that the process is maintained within these limits using process controls and monitoring instruments, highly trained personnel, and protective instrument systems (e.g., automated shutdown systems).
The gas plant also maintains numerous technical documents that provide information about the design and construction of process equipment.
This information includes materials of construction, design pressure and temperature ratings, and electrical rating of equipment. This information, in combination with written procedures and trained personnel, provides a basis for establishing inspection and maintenance activities, as well as for evaluating proposed process and facility changes to ensure that safety features in the process are not compromised.
Process Hazard Analysis (PHA)
The Calumet gas plant has a comprehensive program to help ensure that hazards associated with the various processes are identified and controlled. Within this program, each process is systematically examined to identify hazards and ensure that adequate controls are in place to manage these hazards.
The Calumet gas plant primarily uses the Hazard and Operability (HAZOP) analysis technique to perform these evaluations. HAZOP analysis is recognized as one of the most systematic and thorough hazard evaluation techniques. The analyses are co
nducted using a team of people who have operating and maintenance experience as well as engineering expertise. This team identifies and evaluates hazards of the process as well as accident prevention and mitigation measures, and the team makes suggestions for additional prevention and/or mitigation measures when the team believes such measures are necessary.
The PHA team findings are forwarded to corporate management for resolution. Implementation of mitigation options in response to PHA findings is based on a relative risk ranking assigned by the PHA team. This ranking helps ensure that potential accident scenarios assigned the highest risk receive immediate attention. All approved mitigation options in response to PHA team findings are tracked until they are completed. The final resolution of each finding is documented and retained.
To help ensure that the process controls and/or process hazards do not eventually deviate significantly from the original design safety featur
es, the plant periodically updates and revalidates the hazard analysis results. These periodic reviews are conducted at least every 5 years and will be conducted at this frequency until the process is no longer operating. The results and findings from these updates are documented and retained. Once again, the team findings are forwarded to corporate management for consideration, and the final resolution of the findings is documented and retained.
The Calumet gas plant maintains written procedures that address various modes of process operations, such as (1) unit startup, (2) normal operations, (3) temporary operations, (4) emergency shutdown, (5) normal shutdown, and (6) initial startup of a new process. These procedures can be used as a reference by experienced operators and provide a basis for consistent training of new operators. These procedures are periodically reviewed and annually certified as current and accurate. The procedures are kept current
and accurate by revising them as necessary to reflect changes made through the management of change process.
In addition, the Calumet gas plant maintains Operating Procedures and/or process safety information that provide guidance on how to respond to upper or lower limit exceedances for specific process or equipment parameters. This information is readily available to operators in the process unit and for other personnel to use as necessary to safely perform their job tasks.
To complement the written procedures for process operations, the Calumet gas plant has implemented a comprehensive training program for all employees involved in operating a process. New employees receive basic training in gas plant operations if they are not already familiar with such operations. After successfully completing this training, a new operator is paired with a senior operator to learn process-specific duties and tasks. After operators demonstrate (e.g., through tests, skills de
monstration) having adequate knowledge to perform the duties and tasks in a safe manner on their own, they can work independently. In addition, all operators periodically receive refresher training on the operating procedures to ensure that their skills and knowledge are maintained at an acceptable level. This refresher training is conducted at least every 3 years. All of this training is documented for each operator, including the means used to verify that the operator understood the training.
The Calumet gas plant uses contractors to supplement its work force during periods of increased maintenance or construction activities. Because some contractors work on or near process equipment, the gas plant has procedures in place to ensure that contractors (1) perform their work in a safe manner, (2) have the appropriate knowledge and skills, (3) are aware of the hazards in their workplace, (4) understand what they should do in the event of an emergency, (5) understand
and follow site safety rules, and (6) inform gas plant personnel of any hazards that they find during their work. This is accomplished by providing contractors with (1) a process overview, (2) information about safety and health hazards, (3) emergency response plan requirements, and (4) safe work practices prior to their beginning work. In addition, the Calumet gas plant evaluates contractor safety programs and performance during the selection of a contractor. Gas plant personnel periodically monitor contractor performance to ensure that contractors are fulfilling their safety obligations.
Pre-Startup Safety Reviews (PSSRs)
The Calumet gas plant conducts a PSSR for any new facility or facility modification that requires a change in the process safety information. The purpose of the PSSR is to ensure that safety features, procedures, personnel, and equipment are appropriately prepared for startup prior to placing the equipment into service. This review provides one additional
check to make sure construction is in accordance with the design specifications and that all supporting systems are operationally ready. The PSSR review team uses checklists to verify all aspects of readiness. A PSSR involves field verification of the construction and serves a quality assurance function by requiring verification that accident prevention program requirements are properly implemented.
The Calumet gas plant has well-established practices and procedures to maintain pressure vessels, piping systems, relief and vent systems, controls, pumps and compressors, and emergency shutdown systems in a safe operating condition. The basic aspects of this program include: (1) conducting training, (2) developing written procedures, (3) performing inspections and tests, (4) correcting identified deficiencies, and (5) applying quality assurance measures. In combination, these activities form a system that maintains the mechanical integrity of the process.
Maintenance personnel receive training on (1) an overview of the process, (2) safety and health hazards, (3) applicable maintenance procedures, (4) emergency response plans, and (5) applicable safe work practices to help ensure that they can perform their jobs in a safe manner. Written procedures help ensure that work is performed in a consistent manner and provide a basis for training. Inspections and tests are performed to help ensure that equipment functions as intended and to verify that equipment is within acceptable limits (e.g., adequate wall thickness for pressure vessels). If a deficiency is identified, employees will correct the deficiency before placing the equipment back into service (if possible), or a management of change team will review the use of the equipment and determine what actions are necessary to ensure the safe operation of the equipment.
Another integral part of the mechanical integrity program is quality assurance. The Calumet gas plant incorporates quali
ty assurance measures into equipment purchases and repairs. This helps ensure that new equipment is suitable for its intended use and that proper materials and spare parts are used when repairs are made.
Safe Work Practices
The Calumet gas plant has long-standing safe work practices in place to help ensure worker and process safety. Examples of these include (1) control of the entry/presence/exit of support personnel, (2) a lockout/tagout procedure to ensure isolation of energy sources for equipment undergoing maintenance, (3) a procedure for safe removal of hazardous substances before process piping or equipment is opened, (4) a permit and procedure to control spark-producing activities (i.e., hot work), and (5) a permit and procedure to ensure that adequate precautions are in place before entry into a confined space. These procedures (and others), along with training of affected personnel, form a system to help ensure that operations and maintenance activities are performed
Management of Change (MOC)
The Calumet gas plant has a comprehensive system to manage changes to all covered processes. This system requires that changes to items such as process equipment, chemicals, technology (including process operating conditions), procedures, and other facility changes be properly reviewed and authorized before being implemented. Changes are reviewed to (1) ensure that adequate controls are in place to manage any new hazards and (2) verify that existing controls have not been compromised by the change. Affected chemical hazard information, process operating limits, and equipment information, as well as procedures, are updated to incorporate these changes. In addition, operating and maintenance personnel are provided any necessary training on the change.
The Calumet gas plant promptly investigates all incidents that resulted in, or reasonably could have resulted in, a fire/explosion, toxic gas release, major property
damage, environmental loss, or personal injury. The goal of each investigation is to determine the facts and develop corrective actions to prevent a recurrence of the incident or a similar incident. The investigation team documents its findings, develops recommendations to prevent a recurrence, and forwards these results to gas plant management for resolution. Corrective actions taken in response to the investigation team's findings and recommendations are tracked until they are complete. The final resolution of each finding or recommendation is documented, and the investigation results are reviewed with all employees (including contractors) who could be affected by the findings. Incident investigation reports are retained for at least 5 years so that the reports can be reviewed during future PHAs and PHA revalidations.
To help ensure that the accidental release prevention program is functioning properly, the Calumet gas plant periodically conducts an audit
to determine whether the procedures and practices required by the accident prevention program are being implemented. Compliance audits are required at least every 3 years. Both hourly and staff personnel participate as audit team members. The audit team develops findings that are forwarded to gas plant management for resolution. Corrective actions taken in response to the audit team's findings are tracked until they are complete. The final resolution of each finding is documented, and the two most recent audit reports are retained.
CHEMICAL-SPECIFIC PREVENTION STEPS
The processes at the Calumet gas plant have hazards that must be managed to ensure continued safe operation. The following is a description of existing safety features applicable to prevention of accidental releases of regulated substances in the facility.
Universal Prevention Activities
The accident prevention program summarized previously is applied to all processes at the Calumet gas plant. Collective
ly, these prevention program activities help prevent potential accident scenarios that could be caused by equipment failures and human errors.
Specialized Safety Features
The Calumet gas plant has safety features on many units to help (1) contain/control a release, (2) quickly detect a release, and (3) reduce the consequences of (mitigate) a release. The following types of safety features are used in the covered processes:
7 Hydrocarbon detectors with alarms and shutdowns.
7 High/Low alarms and shutdowns.
7 Plant is staffed 24-hours a day, 7-days a week.
7 Process relief valves that discharge to a flare to capture and incinerate episodic releases.
7 Valves to permit isolation of the process (manual or automated).
7 Automated shutdown systems for specific process parameters (e.g., high temperature).
7 Redundant equipment and instrumentation (e.g., uninterruptable power supply for process control system).
7 Atmospheric relief dev
7 Fire extinguishers.
7 Trained emergency response personnel.
7 Personal protective equipment (e.g., chemical protective clothing).
FIVE-YEAR ACCIDENT HISTORY
The Calumet gas plant has an excellent record of accidental release prevention over the past 5 years. There have been no accidental releases that have occurred in the past 5 years that have resulted in offsite effects. We investigate every incident very carefully to determine ways to prevent similar incidents from recurring. The following table is a summary of the number of incidents that have occurred during the past 5 years.
1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Number of RMP Events with Onsite Effects 0 0 0 0 0
Number of RMP Events with Offsite Effects 0 0 0 0 0
EMERGENCY RESPONSE PROGRAM INFORMATION
The Calumet gas plant maintains a wr
itten emergency response program, which is in place to protect worker and public safety as well as the environment. The program consists of procedures for responding to a release of a regulated substance, including the possibility of a fire or explosion if a flammable substance is accidentally released. The procedures address all aspects of emergency response, including proper first aid and medical treatment for exposures, evacuation plans and accounting for personnel after an evacuation, notification of local emergency response agencies and the public if a release occurs, and post-incident cleanup and decontamination requirements. In addition, the plant has procedures that address maintenance, inspection, and testing of emergency response equipment, as well as instructions that address the use of emergency response equipment. Employees receive training in these procedures as necessary to perform their specific emergency response duties. The emergency response program is updated w
hen necessary based on modifications made to gas plant processes or other Enogex gas plant facilities.
The overall emergency response program for the Calumet gas plant is coordinated with the Canadian County Local Emergency Planning Committee (LEPC) and the local fire department. This coordination includes periodic meetings of the LEPC, which includes local emergency response officials, local government officials, and industry representatives. The Calumet gas plant has around-the-clock communications capability with appropriate LEPC officials and emergency response organizations (e.g., fire department). This provides a means of notifying the public of an incident, if necessary, as well as facilitating quick response to an incident.
PLANNED CHANGES TO IMPROVE SAFETY
The Calumet gas plant resolves high priority findings from PHAs, some of which may result in modifications to the process. The following types of changes are planned over the next few years in response to PHA,
safety audit, and incident investigation findings:
7 Revisions/enhancements to personnel training programs
7 Revisions/enhancements to contractor safety programs
7 Revisions/enhancements to mechanical integrity programs